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Full text of "Theoretical analysis of the symphonies of Aaron Copland"



A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 
SYMPHONIES OF AARON COPLAND 



BY 
QUINCY CHARLES HILLIARD 



A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF 
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT 
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF 
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



1984 



Copyright® 198 4 
by 
Quincy Charles Hilliard 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author is greatly appreciative of Mr. Edward 
Troupin for his astute criticism and mature judgment. His 
candid comments helped to clarify many of the facts and 
concepts in this study. Recognition goes to Dr. William 
Hedges for his expert criticism of the manuscript. Much 
appreciation goes to Dr. Albert Smith and Dr. Budd Udell for 
their counsel throughout the work. The writer is grateful 
to Mr. Richard Bowles not only as a committee member, but 
also as a composer. His infinite patience, keen insight, 
and criticism have been invaluable to me, as has been the 
fish scholarship. The author is grateful to Dr. David 
Kushner for his wisdom, encouragement, and assistance shown 
not only as a professor, but also as a friend. In securing 
information, Mrs. Robena Cornwell and Mrs. Barbara Salaman 
were most helpful. Special thanks also go to Aaron Copland 
for being such a gracious host and allowing time for an 
interview, and to Boosey and Hawkes Publishers for granting 
permission to incorporate excerpts from the symphonies in 
this dissertation. The writer is indebted to his father, 



in 



the late Reverend Q. C. Hilliard, whose memory was a con- 
stant source of inspiration. Acknowledgment also goes to 
the following for their encouragement and support: Laura M. 
Hilliard, Alsenia Ashford, Coty Ashford, Deborah James, 
Vivian James, and friends. Last, but certainly not least, a 
special gratitude goes to his wife, Rubye. Her optimism, 
inspiration, and wit were the brightest in the darkest 
hours. Without her ceaseless patience, motivation, and 
financial support, this degree would be a dream and not a 
reality. 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

ABSTRACT 

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 

Statement of the Problem 

Need for the Study 

Limitations 

Methodology 

Data Sources 

Collection of Data 

Analysis of Data 

Definition of Terms , 

Organization of the Chapters , 

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE , 

Books Written by Aaron Copland..., 
Articles Written by Aaron Copland, 
Books Written About Aaron Copland, 
Articles Written About Copland..., 

Jazz Elements 

Folk Music , 

Short Symphony , 

Third Symphony 

The Music in General 

CHAPTER III DANCE SYMPHONY 

First Movement 

Second Movement 

Third Movement 

General Observations 



in 



VII 



1 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
4 
5 
7 



9 
11 
14 
15 
16 
18 
18 
19 
20 

22 

25 
38 
47 
58 



PAGE 

CHAPTER IV FIRST SYMPHONY 6 3 

First Movement 64 

Second Movement 71 

Thi rd Movement 82 

General Observations 9 4 

CHAPTER V SECOND (SHORT) SYMPHONY 99 

First Movement 100 

Second Movement 117 

Third Movement 124 

General Observations 13 6 

CHAPTER VI THIRD SYMPHONY 14 1 

First Movement 141 

Second Movement 14 8 

Third Movement 158 

Fourth Movement 166 

General Observations 176 

CHAPTER VII SYNTHESIS OF COMPOSITIONAL PROCEDURES. 

Melody 179 

Harmony 18 3 

Rhythm 187 

Formal Design 18 9 

Instrumentation and Orchestration 191 

CHAPTER VIII THE USEFULNESS OF THE SYMPHONIES AS 

EXEMPLARS IN THE TEACHING OF HIGHER 

LEVEL MUSIC THEORY COURSES 19 4 

Copland' s Melodic Contour 195 

Copland's Harmonic Practice 200 

Copland's Rhythmic Practice 2 05 

Structural Design 20 9 

Orchestration Technique 211 

Value of These Symphonies to a Young 

Composer 212 

CHAPTER IX SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND 

RECOMMENDATIONS 213 

REFERENCES 216 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 219 



VI 



Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the 
Graduate School of the University of Florida 
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements 
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy 



A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 
SYMPHONIES OF AARON COPLAND 

By 

Quincy Charles Hilliard 

April, 19 84 

Chairman: Dr. William Hedges 

Cochairman: Mr. Edward Troupin 

Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction 

The primary purpose of this study is to provide a 
theoretical analysis of the symphonies of Aaron Copland. 
The symphonies analyzed are the Dance Symphony, First 
Symphony 3 Second Symphony (Short Symphony), and the Third 
Symphony. The study investigates each symphony with regard 
to thematic material, tonality, formal design, rhythm, and 
orchestration. A comparison of these elements concentrates 
on the differences and similarities among the symphonies, 
and the importance of their construction in the development 
of Copland's technique and style. His technique and style 
are significant examples of twentieth-century musical pract- 
ice, and are, therefore, relevant in teaching twentieth- 
century music. The study examines the usefulness of the 



vn 



symphonies as exemplars in the teaching of higher level 
music theory courses and the value of the symphonies to a 
young composer. 

Based on the analysis, the researcher found that a 
majority of Copland's melodies are diatonic and do not span 
more than an octave. The composer also uses polyharmonies , 
polytonality , and clusters. In constructing chords, Copland 
sometimes omits tones. There is also an abundant use of 
counterpoint throughout the symphonies . With regard to 
rhythm, the composer employs such devices as syncopation, 
frequent changes of meter, asymmetrical rhythms, ostinatos, 
and polyrhythm. The form of each movement is usually based 
on some traditional design, and all the symphonies adhere to 
the cyclic principle of structural design. Copland's trans- 
parent texture can be attributed to the soloistic treatment 
of instruments, incomplete chord structure, rare doubling, 
and the consistent use of intervals of a fourth, fifth, and 
octave for a harmonic background. 

The author recommends that the symphonies be used in 
music curricula of higher education dealing with harmony, 
form and analysis, composition, counterpoint, and orchestra- 
tion as examples of twentieth-century stylistic practice. 



Vlll 



CHAPTER I 
INTRODUCTION 



Statement of the Problem 



The major purpose of this study is to provide a theo- 
retical analysis of the symphonies of Aaron Copland. In the 
analysis, the study investigates tonality, thematic materi- 
al, formal design, rhythm, and orchestration. A comparison 
of these elements is made to show the characteristics of each 
symphony and the stylistic traits that are common to all. 
The devices derived from jazz idioms are also examined in 
the analysis. Throughout the dissertation, there is an 
attempt to answer the following questions: 



1. What relevance do the symphonies have 
in the teaching of higher level music 
theory courses? 

2. How can the study of these symphonies 
be helpful to a young composer? 

3. What does an analysis of these sym- 
phonies reveal about Copland's tech- 
nique of composing for the orchestral 
medium? 

4. What are the similarities and differ- 
ences among the symphonies? 



Finally, this study can serve as a model for analyzing 
other compositions from this period. 



Need for the Study 

Aaron Copland has been called the "Dean of American 
Composers." He has written many compositions, several of 
which have been analyzed and others which have been over- 
looked. His large works, including his symphonies, fall 
into the latter category. Such large works by a major com- 
poser should be analyzed to determine the structural make-up 
of his symphonic form. The analysis may not only provide 
exemplars for the teaching of higher level music theory 
courses, but can also be useful in teaching twentieth- 
century compositional techniques to young composers. 

Limitations 

The present dissertation is subject to the following 
limitations: 



1. The works by Copland that are analyzed are 
the Dance Symphony , First Symphony 3 Second 
Symphony (Short Symphony ) , and the Third 
Symphony . 

2. There is no attempt to supplement extant 
biographical material on Copland. 

3. No judgment is made concerning the rela- 
tive merits of these works. 



Harriett Johnson, "Aaron Copland: Dean of American 
Composers," International Musician, LXXV (July, 1976), p. 6. 



Methodology 

The following procedure was used in the collection and 
analysis of data. 
Data Sources 

The printed scores of the symphonies were the primary 
sources of data. The Dance Symphony (1925) and the First 
Symphony (1928) were first published by Arrow Music Press 
(originally Cos Cob Press). The Short Symphony (1933) and 
the Third Symphony (1946) were published by Boosey and 
Hawkes. Another primary source is a personal interview with 
Aaron Copland on July 15, 1981. 

Secondary sources include books written by Julia Smith 
and Arthur Berger. Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribu- 
tion to American Music was written by Julia Smith and 
published by E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., in 19 55. 
Berger' s book, entitled Aaron Copland, was first published 
by Greenwood Press in 19 77. 

A majority of the articles that are used in this study 
were written by Copland and published in the journals Modern 
Music and Tempo. Other critical works, as well as books 
written by the composer, were also utilized in the analysis. 
Collection of Data 

The collection of data was accomplished by purchasing 
the scores of the symphonies from Boosey and Hawkes, current 



publishers of Copland's music. For the purposes of this 
study, an interview was conducted with Aaron Copland to 
collect data pertaining to his symphonies and his teaching 
philosophy. A methodical search was also conducted through 
several magazines and journals, in particular, the journals 
Modern Music and Tempo. The books and other historical 
material were available in the University of Florida Music 
Library in Gainesville, Florida, and the Library of 
Congress, in Washington, D.C. The search for data was 
conducted from January, 1980, to July, 1981. 
Analysis of Data 

The symphonies are analyzed through the use of tradi- 
tional and contemporary methods. These methods examine 
harmony, formal design, melodic structure, rhythm, and 
instrumentation. The data from the interview, books, and 
periodicals are analyzed to show the usefulness of these 
symphonies in the teaching of higher level music theory 
courses. The comparative analysis concentrates on the 
differences and similarities in the ways Copland has con- 
structed his symphonies and the importance of this con- 
struction in the development of his particular technique and 
style. His technique and style are significant examples of 
twentieth-century musical practice and are, therefore, 
relevant in teaching twentieth-century music theory and 



composition. Charts, diagrams, and musical examples are 
shown to aid in a greater understanding of the data. 

Definition of Terms 

For the purpose of this study, the following 
definitions were used: 

Augmentation. A proportional increase in note value. 

Canonio imitation. A restatement of a melody, theme, 
or motive in close succession in a contrapuntal 
texture. 

Cluster. A chord that consists of two or more consecu- 
tive intervals of a second. 

Col legno. A style of bowing which requires the per- 
former to bounce the wooden stick of the violin bow 
against the strings. 

Cuivre. An effect which is usually found in the French 
horn, but is common to all brass instruments. The term 
instructs the player to produce a forced and brassy 
tone. 

Cyclic form. A format for a composition with several 
movements in which thematic material from the first 
movement is used in some or all of the movements, 
especially in the last movement. 

Diminution. A proportional decrease in note value. 

Fugato. A section or passage in fugal style which 
occurs in a composition. 

Glissando. An effect which requires the performer to 
execute a scale passage in a rapid, sliding movement. 

Inversion. The changing of a melody, theme, or motive 
so that each descending interval becomes the corre- 
sponding ascending interval and vice versa. 



Jete. An effect which is produced by throwing the 
upper third of the bow on the strings so that it will 
bounce a series of rapid notes on the down bow. 

Neo-classia. A period in twentieth-century music which 
uses characteristics and stylistic traits from the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Ostinato. A recurring rhythm-pitch figure which is re- 
peated persistently in immediate succession. 

Poly harmony . The combination of two or more chorda 1 
units simultaneously. 

Polyrhythm. The simultaneous combination of two or 
more metric pulsations. 

Polytonality. The combination of two or more key 
centers simultaneously. 

Retrograde. A melody or theme written backward. 

Sonata allegro design. A movement of a composition 
written in primarily three sections — exposition, 
development, and recapitulation. The exposition may be 
preceded by an introduction, and the recapitulation may 
be followed by a coda. The exposition consists of two 
contrasting themes. In the development section, the 
two themes are subject to various treatments, and in 
the recapitulation, the two themes are repeated. 

Stretto. The imitation of a motive or phrase in close 
succession, with the repetition entering before the 
first statement is completed. Stretto is a device 
commonly associated with the fugue. 

Sul pontiaello. A style of bowing which requires the 
performer to bow close to the bridge. 

Sul tasto. An effect which is produced by bowing 
slightly over the fingerboard. 

Tonal center. The pitch level which serves as a 
gravitational pole or pitch focus for a section of a 
composition. 



Organization of Chapters 

Chapter II contains a review of significant literature 
related to Copland's musical output. The chapter also con- 
tains a review of his articles, books and essays, as well as 
other literary writings about Copland. 

Chapters III, IV, V and VI are devoted to the analyses 
of his First Symphony, Second Symphony, Third Symphony, and 
Danee Symphony, respectively. These chapters examine each 
symphony by movements. There is also a brief section at the 
end of each chapter to summarize the important observations. 

Chapter VII gives a synthesis of Aaron Copland's 
symphonic procedures. The chapter investigates similarities 
and differences in melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, and formal 
structure. The instrumentation and orchestration of each 
symphony are also taken into consideration in this chapter. 

Chapter VIII shows the potential utility and importance 
of these symphonies as teaching instruments in higher level 
music theory courses, and the value of these symphonies to a 
young composer. 

Chapter IX summarizes and gives conclusions on findings 
in relation to their implications in the teaching of theory 
and composition. Suggestions for additional research 



8 

are also supplied. A comprehensive bibliography is also 
included. 

Excerpts from Symphony No. 1, Symphony No. 2, Symphony 
No. 3, and the Dance Symphony are reprinted by permission of 
Aaron Copland, copyright owner, and Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., 
sole licensees. 



CHAPTER II 
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 



For the purposes of this study, the review of litera- 
ture has been divided into four categories: books written 
by Copland, articles written by Aaron Copland, books written 
about Copland, and articles written about Copland. The 
author believes that Copland's writings and viewpoints about 
music are of the utmost importance in the analysis and 
understanding of the composer's music. 

Books Written by Aaron Copland 

Music and Imagination consists of a set of presenta- 
tions known as the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures given at 
Harvard University during the academic year 1951-52. All 
the lectures carry the general theme of the role imagination 
plays in the art of music. The book is divided into two 
parts: Music and the Imaginative Mind, and Musical Imagina- 
tion and the Contemporary Scene. The first part of the book 
investigates the musical mind in the role of listener (audi- 
ence) , creator (composer) , and interpreter (performer) . The 



Aaron Copland, Music and Imagination (Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1952). 



10 

second part examines the recent innovations and the imagina- 
tive mind in Europe and America. Copland also examines the 
role and perception of the composer in Industrial America. 

What to Listen for in Musi a was derived from a course 
of fifteen lectures that Copland gave at the New School for 
Social Research in New York City during the winter of 193 6 
and 1937. The author not only discusses how people listen 
and the importance of listening, but also states that the 
listener should "strive for a more active kind of listen- 
ing." To gain a deeper understanding of music, the com- 
poser believes that the listener should become more alert 
and aware of what to listen for in music. The importance of 
the interpreter, and the effect that he can have on the 
listener's comprehension and understanding of a composer's 
work are also examined. The book was written for the layman 
and not the professional musician. Because of this fact, 
Copland acknowledges that his book is restricted to matters 
which he feels clarify essential listening problems. 

The New Music, as it is called in its revised edition, 
was titled in this manner to indicate that it is not just a 
reprint of the original edition. 3 The book highlights the 
main developments in music from the late nineteenth century 



2 
Aaron Copland, What to Listen for in Music (New York: 
McGraw-Hill Company, Inc., 1957), p. 23. 

3 
Aaron Copland, The New Music: 1900-1960 (New York: 
W. W. Norton and Company, 1965). 



11 

to the mid-twentieth century, and the composers who have 
played a significant role in this development. Ideas in 
this book are also the result of articles, radio talks, and 
lectures presented since 1927. Copland also gives a general 
overview of late nineteenth-century and early twentieth- 
century music . 

Copland on Musi a contains articles written by Copland 
over a period of thirty years on music and musicians. Most 
of these articles have already appeared in magazines and 
newspapers; thus, the purpose of this collection was to make 
them available in a collective volume which would summarize 
the composer's viewpoints on music. 

Most of Copland's writings were the result of lectures 
and articles written by him over a period of years. In an 
interview with Copland, he explains that the lectures were a 
definite source of income. The composer says, "I could make 
more money in one afternoon by lecturing to 200 students 
than seeing each one of them individually." 



4 

Aaron Copland, Copland on Music (New York: Da Cap a 
Press 5 1976) . 

Statement by Aaron Copland, Composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



12 



Articles Written by Aaron Copland 

Copland has written many articles, several of which 
appear in Copland on Music. Most of these articles are 
devoted to: 

1. A particular composer's style of composition to 
aid in the understanding of his work. 

2. American contemporary music. 

3. Contemporary music. 

For the purposes of this dissertation, only two of the 
articles written by Copland have a direct connection with 
his symphonic works. Both of these articles give his 
viewpoints concerning certain musical elements that are 
present in his music. 

The first article, "Jazz Structure and Influences," 
published in 1927, gives a brief background of the history 
of jazz and its origin. According to Copland, the most 
important element of jazz is rhythm. He also states that 
early jazz consisted of a slow four quarter note bass line 
and is improved by accenting the feminine beats (two and 
four) . Along with this combination, a new rhythmic element 
was introduced in the melody. Jazz, according to Copland, 



13 

"contains no syncopation; it is instead a rhythm of four 
quarter [notes] split into eight eighths [notes]." 6 Because 
of these two rhythms (in the bass and melody) , whatever 
melody is used comes out "jazzy." These two independent 
rhythms became known as polyrhythm. In regard to poly- 
rhythms, Copland states, "the peculiar excitement they 
[polyrhythms] produce by clashing two definitely and regu- 
larly marked rhythms is unprecedented in occidental music." 
Copland, therefore, acknowledges that "polyrhythm is the 
real contribution of jazz." 

In "On the Notation of Rhythms," published in 1944, the 
author states that our present-day system is inadequate to 
serve the needs of the performer, composer, and conductor. 
Notation of traditional rhythmic patterns is not the pro- 
blem. The trouble begins when trying to notate combinations 
of unequal units of twos and threes. Use of subterfuges by 
composers for keeping the strong beat away from the barline 
shows the deficiencies in our present-day system. Although 
rhythmic freedom seems to be a characteristic of western 
music, Copland feels that a more efficient system is needed 



Aaron Copland, "Jazz Structure and Influence," Modern 

Music, IV (February, 1927), p. 11. 

Copland, "Jazz Structure," p. 13. 

Q 

Copland, "Jazz Structure," p. 13. 



14 

"to account for rhythmic subtleties that don't 'get across' 
to the interpreter in our old fashioned notational system." 9 

Books Written About Copland 

There have been only two books written about Copland 
which pertain to his music. Since the purpose of this study 
is not to investigate existing biographical material, those 
books that are biographical have been omitted. 

Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribution to American 
Music, by Julia Smith, may be the most comprehensive book 
yet written on Copland. Smith has combined biographical 
information with a study of Copland's music and writings to 
show his contributions to American music. Separate chapters 
are given to his two most important teachers, Rubin Goldmark 
and Nadia Boulanger. Smith divided Copland's writing style 
into three distinct periods. Each section gives a brief 
history and a brief analysis of the works in that particular 
period. The periods are divided as indicated below: 

French-Jazz Period (1924-1929) 
Abstract Period (1929-1935) 
American Folksong Period (1934-1955) 



9 

Aaron Copland, "On the Notation of Rhythms," Modern 
Music, XXI (May/June, 1944), p. 220. 

Julia Smith, Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribution 
to American Music (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company , 
Inc. , 1955) . 



15 
She also devotes a separate chapter to Copland's critical 
works. Smith says that her purpose was to trace Copland's 
development as an individual and as a composer because she 
felt that "his work was a reflection of his life." 11 
Smith's book is limited in that it does not include any of 
Copland's compositions after 1955. 

Aaron Copland, by Arthur Berger, published in 1953, has 
a wealth of information about Copland and his music. The 
bcok is divided into two parts — The Man, and The Music. 
Part one, The Man, examines the composer's musical develop- 
ment and his relationship to American Music. Part two, The 
Music, concentrates on Copland's compositional technique, 
his use of folk music, jazz elements, and his method of 
chord building. Although brief and generalized, this study 
is the only one of its kind that investigates Copland's 
music through analysis. The analysis is a consolidated look 
at all of Copland's music — ballets, symphonies, film music, 
and piano works. 

Neither of the two books offers any detailed analysis 
of the Copland symphonies. Usually the thematic material 
and formal design are the only musical elements discussed. 



Ibid, p. 8. 

12 

Arthur Berger, Aaron Copland (Westport, Connecticut: 
Greenwood Press Publishers, 1971). 



16 



Articles Written About Copland 

A majority of these articles deal with Copland's music 
in general. Only four of these articles that the author has 
been able to locate deal with his symphonies directly. The 
articles in this section of the review of literature are 
divided into five subheadings — Jazz Elements, Folk Music, 
Second Symphony, Third Symphony, and The Music in General. 
Jazz Elements 

Fuller reveals that although Copland studied in France, 
his music assumed American traits through the infusion of 
the sound and rhythms of jazz. Goldberg feels that 
Copland has managed to use jazz in its purest state. The 
use of double and triple rhythms and "their combination in 
the same instrumental line," fascinated Copland. Goldberg 
also found that Copland's chief extension of the use of jazz 
has been a "deepening of its emotional range." Gold 
reveals that Copland found the harmonic limitations of 



13 

Donald Fuller, "A Symphonist Goes to Folk Sources," 

Musical America, LXVIII (February, 1948), p. 256. 

14 

Isaac Goldberg, "Aaron Copland and His Jazz," American 

Mercury, XXII (September, 1927), p. 64. 
15 r , . ,. 



17 

1 fi 
progressive jazz are more free. The composer described 

jazz as having two moods: blues and fast rhythm movement. 

In an interview with Copland, he states that he was 

attracted to jazz: 

First because of the rhythm . . . it was 
fresh, different, lively, and exciting. Second, 
because it was recognized as a product of America. 
My desire to write music that could be recognized 
as American was in my mind in the twenties. I 
spent three years in Paris as a student and had 
become aware of the "Frenchness" of French music 
by the comparison of the "Germanness" of German 
music. So the jazz boys in America proved that 
they could write a music that the whole world 
could recognize as American, so I asked myself, 
"Why can't we do, -it in the field of so-called 
classical music?" 

In an interview with Don Gold, Copland says, "the wildness 
of jazz attracts me — the mood stuff and the colorful stuff. 
The let-loose quality is rarely found in 'serious' music." 18 
The main problem that the composer found with jazz was "a 

lack of unity in expressive content, by failing to drive 

19 
home a unified idea." The composer, however, is quoted in 



Don Gold, "Aaron Copland: The Well-Known American 
Composer Finds Virtues and Flaws in Jazz," Down Beat, XXV 
(May 1, 1958) , p. 25. 

17 

Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 

18 Gold, pp. 39-40. 

19 Gold, p. 16. 



18 

the article as saying, "the two fields [contemporary classi- 
cal music and jazz] will continue to borrow and perhaps 

eventually will overlap. But I don't feel that there ever 

20 
will be one form." 

Folk Music 

Burns found that Copland's desire to appeal to a larger 
audience led him to use folk themes in his music. In Burns' 
conclusions, she states that he uses both authentic folk 
material and "folklike" material of his own composition. 
Burns goes on to state that Copland developed his themes 
"instrumentally, durationally , and texturally. " 21 
Short Symphony 

Redlich believes that the octave-transpositions in the 
opening bars of the theme contribute to the tonal ambitus. 22 
The narrow intervallic range of the themes in all three 
movements lends itself to ostinato treatment. The second 



Ibid. 

21 

Mary T. Burns, "An Analysis of Selected Folk-Style 

Themes in the Music of Bedrich Smetana and Aaron Copland," 

American Music Teacher, XXV (November/December, 1975) , p. 

JL U « 

22 

Ambitus is a Latin word meaning compass or range. 

Redlich refers to the fact that the tonal compass or range 
of the opening theme is increased through octave- 
transpositions. 



19 

movement is derived from the "malaguena" motif of a de- 
scending fourth, while the third movement is built around a 

23 
variety of "rhythmical metamorphoses." 

Evans' analysis of the Short Symphony shows that the 

first movement is filled with short jagged motifs. The 

motifs are characterized by "not only modified intervals and 

octave-transposition but also interpolated notes usually 

completing arpeggio patterns. " The second movement 

centers around an F tonality with a very free rhythmic 

motion. He goes on to state that the last movement has a 

25 
bi-tonal relationship. 

Third Symphony 

Crankshaw says that the tonality in Copland's Third 

Symphony is strongly emphasized. The tonal centers of E 

major and F major are used throughout the four movements. 

The author reveals that the composer uses rhythm and orches- 

26 
tral timbres to function as color. 



23 

H. F. Redlich, "Music from the American Continent," 

Musia Review, XIX (August, 1958), p. 258. 

24 

Peter Evans, "The Thematic Technigue of Copland's 

Recent Works," Tempo, LI (Spring/Summer, 1959), p. 4. 

2 5 rJ . , 

Ibvd. 

26 

Geoffrey Crankshaw, "Aaron Copland," Chesterian, 

XXXII (Spring, 1958), pp. 100-101. 



20 
In Berger's analysis of Copland's Third Symphony, he 
shows that the first movement contains three themes which 
are essentially diatonic. The second movement is a scherzo 
and is traditional in form. The third movement is slow in 
character and built around a theme that has the elements of 

a hymn tune. Copland's Fanfare for the Common Man is also 

27 
quoted in this symphony. 

The Music in General 

Thomson found that Copland's music is "American in 

rhythm, Jewish in melody, eclectic in all the rest." 28 The 

emotional origin is religious, and tension is created by the 

orchestration, which places various instruments into their 

extreme high registers. Because of this characteristic, 

"the instrumentation is designed to impress, to overpower, 

29 
to terrify, not to sing." His observations also reveal 

that Copland's melodies are "predominantly minor" and chrom- 
aticism is used as ornamentation rather than modulation. He 
describes Copland's music as "coloristic . . . [with] 

harmonic and instrumental elements rather than melodic 

30 
devices." Thomson states that Copland's music is not 



27 

Arthur Berger, "The Third Symphony of Aaron Copland," 

Tempo, IX (Autumn, 1948), pp. 22-25. 

2 8 

Virgil Thomson, "American Composers: Aaron Copland," 

Modern Music, IX ( January /February , 1932), p. 67. 
Ibvd. 
Ibid, 



21 

polyphonic. His most common contrapuntal device is a "form 

of a canon at the octave or unison, everybody doing the same 

31 
thing at a different moment." Thomson says, "this is 

32 
counterpoint but not polyphony." 

Berger suggests that Copland's greatest musical contri- 
bution may be the matter of chord spacing. In addition, 

some of his harmonies contain tones that are not part of the 

33 
diatonic scale. 

Salas characterized the music of Copland's later period 
as having an increased use of open harmonies, rhythmic asym- 
metry, and a gradual separation from chromaticism. Poly- 
tonalism, says Salas, is created by small thematic phrases 

built upon triads which disregard traditional harmonic 

34 
meaning. 

All of these articles point to the fact that Copland's 

music has a distinctive sound. One of the purposes of this 

study is to describe the musical elements in the symphonies 

which contribute to this result. 



31 

Ibid. , p. 68 . 

3 2 

Ibid., p. 68. The author of this study disagrees 

strongly with this last statement, because a canon is a 
contrapuntal device with two or more voices, which can be 
described as polyphony. 

33 

Arthur Berger, "The Music of Aaron Copland," Musical 

Quarterly, XXXI (October, 1945), p. 438. 

34 

Juan 0. Salas, "Aaron Copland: A New York Composer," 

Tempo, IX (Autumn, 1948), pp. 8-16. 



CHAPTER III 
DANCE SYMPHONY 



The dance Symphony was derived from the ballet, Crogh. 
The symphony was one of the winners of the RCA Victor Award. 
The first performance took place on April 15, 1931, at the 
Academy of Music, in Philadelphia. It was performed by the 
Philadelphia Orchestra, under the direction of Leopold 
Stokowski, in a concert held for the benefit of the 
unemployed musicians of Philadelphia. 

Regarding the work, Smith quotes the Philadelphia 
Inquire r: 



The "Jazz" or "Dance" Symphony of Copland 
promptly proved popular and established itself 
as modern music of interest and individuality. 
It has substantial musical structure, with 
considerable diversity of material, and re- 
sourcefulness in treatment. The work is orig- 
inal and unusual in effect and distinctly 
evocative in atmosphere. 



Through the analysis, the author of this dissertation 
discovered that the Danoe Symphony closely resembles the 



Julia Smith, Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribution 
to American Music (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 
Inc., 1955), pp. 133-134. 

2 
Ibid. , p. 134. 



22 



23 

programmatic symphony. The program symphony is a nineteenth 
century composition based on an extra-musical idea. There 
are three reasons why the author characterizes this symphony 
as a program symphony: 

1. The Dance Symphony is a large symphonic work 
in three movements. 

2. The Dance Symphony is based on an extra-musical 
idea which is a character named Grogh. 

3. Each movement of the Symphony has its own 
title. 

The first movement is entitled, "Dance of the Adolescent," 
the second movement is entitled, "Dance of a Young Girl Who 
Moves as if in a Dream," and the third movement is entitled, 
"Dance of Mockery." The entire symphony is based on a 
character named Grogh. Grogh is a character that Copland 
and Harold Clurman devised, and around whom they invented a 
scenario in which magicians, vampires and dead bodies all 
participate. Grogh is the title of a ballet from which the 
symphony was taken. The ideas from the ballet are carried 
over into the symphony. For instance, Copland states that 
the introduction "sets the scene for Grogh' s domain" (Dance 
of the Adolescent), and the last movement (Dance of Mockery) 
is where "Grogh is taunted by his victims and servitors." 3 



3 
Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in an interview 
with Phillip Ramey at the Connaught Hotel in London. The 
interview took place on October 3,19 67, after Aaron Copland 



24 

In addition, the polyrhythms used in the last movement 
represent the dancing of the dead bodies. Copland states: 

Grogh-like pronouncements appear in the 
trumpets and trombones, and then all hell 
breaks loose. A sudden pause terminates the 
almost hysterical climax while Grogh's com- 
manding motto from the opening movement 
erupts into shrieking trills — and collapses. 

The author of this study contends that through these de- 
scriptive statements, Copland has led the reader to believe 
there is a direct correlation between what happens in the 
music and the events surrounding Grogh's death. The result 
is a symphonic work in several movements with descriptive 
titles for each movement. The final conclusion is that the 
Dance Symphony is a program symphony adhering to the cyclic 
principle of formal design. 

The performance time for this symphony is twenty 
minutes. 



had finished recording his Dance Symphony with the London 
Symphony Orchestra. Aaron Copland, Copland Conducts 
Copland, conducted by Aaron Copland, London Symphony 
Orchestra, Columbia Records, MS 7223 (jacket notes). 



4 Ibid. 



25 

First Movement 

The first movement closely resembles the sonata-allegro 
design. There are two contrasting themes that return in the 
recapitulation, but not in the order in which they are 
traditionally found. There is also an introduction with a 
very short development section. The tonal levels of this 
movement are not consistent, however, with the classical 
sonata-allegro format. 



Intro 



1st Theme 



(Trans. ) 



2nd Theme 



Me as. 1 



(Dev.) 



E 
26 



(70) 

2nd Theme 



F 
78 

1st Theme 

— I 



Coda 



180 



(142) 



(Trans.]_ 
201 



C 
180 



E 
176 



Figure 3.1. Tonal Levels of the First Movement 

The introduction, marked Lento ( J = 48) , uses a motive 
with the minor third as the characteristic interval, and is 
played by the trumpets. 



1 



fc= 



Figure 3.2. Page 1, measures 1-2 

In measures three and four, the motive is heard again, but 
this time, in a slightly different rhythm pattern. 



kfc£ 



j g m V i =g| 



i 



Figure 3.3. Page 1, measures 3-4 

The motive is used throughout the introduction which ends in 
measure twenty-five. At measure twenty-six, the tempo 
changes to Motto allegro ( J = 96). The first theme is 
played for the first time by the bassoon: 



W 



'.Hffffiff 




I ,f | ^ri =fcE#N 



kftlP 



tz 



1 1 m r i m fi i f i § 



Figure 3.4. Page 5, measures 27-3 6 



27 

The theme is played again beginning in measure forty-four, 
and ending in measure sixty-three by the clarinet. The 
clarinet plays the theme in a slightly different form; 
however, the "dance-like" character is unchanged. 



1 



j ^MT; /yPr LjO ?$ -+*- 



i irnpT r f 




% 



hr^ 



& 



7-T-4- 



U -f 



ifi n > 



b^JL \\Jl)?Jl\,A. ' f 




Figure 3.5. Pages 6-8, measures 44-52 

The first theme, played by the bassoon, returns in measures 
sixty-six through sixty-nine in its original form. Measures 
seventy through seventy-seven serve as transitional material 
to the second theme. 

The second theme begins in measure seventy-eight. The 
theme is played by the oboe and the English horn. 



28 




Continued in English horn 



k 



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M 



V 



4 



~2'_ 



ZL 



L 



fe g 



gig 



li 



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Figure 3.6. Pages 12-13, measures 78-83 

The first theme material is replayed beginning in measure 
115 by the horns, and continues to measure 120. Second 
theme material is played in measures 134 through 142. A 
short development section begins in measure 146, and ends in 
measure 162. 

The recapitulation starts in measure 162 in a C tonal 
center. Material that was used earlier in the second theme 
is repeated beginning in measures 164 through 171. The 
viola plays this material. 






■&- 



22: 



J i JllJ 



jESEE 



zz 



■ZT 



Figure 3.7. Pages 25-26, measures 164-171 



29 

First theme material is heard in the recapitulation begin- 
ning in measure 171 and is played by the clarinet in D and 
bassoon. The recapitulation comes to a close in measure 179 
which also marks the beginning of the coda in measure 180. 
There is a stretto between the trumpets and trombones in 
measures 179 through 183. The coda ends in measure 200, and 
measures 201 through 207 serve as transitional material to 
the second movement . 

The harmonic implications of this movement are at times 
ambiguous, and in other instances, conservative. The first 
theme, for example, indicates an E tonal center. The E 
tonal center is further reinforced through the accompaniment 
material played by the violins. An excerpt from the violin 
part is shown below. 




Figure 3.8. Page 5, measures 36-3 7 

The E tonal center is never defined as E major or E minor. 
There are instances in which a G-sharp is used to indicate a 
raised third degree of the E major triad. There are also 






30 

times when a G natural is used along with an F-sharp and 
D-sharp to indicate the harmonic form of the minor scale. 
The type of alternation just described between a major and 
minor tonal center is present throughout the first movement. 
To complicate the ambiguity between E major and E minor, 
Copland uses an F-sharp pedal point in measures thirty-six 
through forty-one, and F pedal point in measures fifty-two 
through fifty-five, and a B pedal point (which suggests the 
dominant of E) in measures fifty-six through sixty-one. The 
chord structure during measures fifty-six through sixty-one 
suggests an E tonal center with an added fourth degree. 



k 



V 



i i v '/ i 






t 



f i i 



% 



Figure 3.9. Page 9, measure 56 



In measures sixty-two through sixty-five, the piano and 
violin play a short transition ending on the dominant of the 
E tonal center. The key centers during the transition are 
clearly defined. The last center, which is B, is spelled 
enharmonically as C-flat in the piano and violin parts. 



31 




Figure 3.10. Page 11, measures 62-64 

In the few instances where Copland has used chords, their 
spelling is often incomplete. In measures 184 through 191, 
the composer repeats a series of chords which are without 
thirds. 



8ur 



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8m 



it 



^^ 



k 



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* jh * ■ 



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F 



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Figure 3.11. Page 28, measures 184-186 



The writing of chords in this manner creates an ambiguity 
because without the third, there is no way of determining 
the quality of the chord. These types of chords also have 
an "open" or "empty" quality which is associated with 
Copland's music. Another example of this type of chord 
usage can be seen in measures 194 through 196. Overall, the 
movement is characterized by the abundant use of counter- 
point. This horizontal structure is evident through 



32 

Copland's linear approach to melodic content and the use of 
arpeggiated chords. An example can be seen beginning in 
measure 139. 

The rhythm of the first movement is very active, except 
for the slow introduction. The composer uses the alia breve 
time signature beginning in measure twenty-six. The tempo 
marking at this point is Motto allegro ( J = 96). The alia 
breve time signature is used for most of the movement until 
measure 193, where the composer changes to 2/4. Measures 
194 and 195 have a 3/4 meter signature, measure 196 has a 
4/4 meter signature, and measures 197 through 200 have a 3/4 
meter signature. The title of the symphony suggests that 
the rhythmic content should be active. Copland reinforces 
the active rhythmic feeling in his first theme. The first 
theme, because of the new tempo in measure twenty-six, is 
very lively and has some syncopation. 



sT* aPt 




fpfr i fTfrr. ,t mm 



w 



tftff j\\ 



Figure 3.12. Page 5, measures 27-31 



33 

In measure forty- four, the second theme, although slightly 
changed, has even more syncopation than it did the first 
time it appeared. 



b £riz 



££ 




f—e- 



% 



IjT> f efe zfck 



z I 




B ^ * ■ * b £ -^ 



PP 



irrrfr iff rf =jHg 



Figure 3.13. Pages 6-7, measures 44-49 

Syncopation can also be seen in measures seventy-eight 
through eighty-three when the second theme is played. 



Oboe 



y* 




I 'LUuLUH I I Ui'i 



Continued in the English horn. 



i=e 



mm 



*-Ht 



i 



3C 



tH 



1 



£ 



Figure 3.14. Pages 12-13, measures 78-82 



In measures 147 through 150, syncopation can be seen in 
almost every instrument playing. 



34 

Copland also uses ostinato rhythms in the first move- 
ment. Measures forty-two through fifty-five show an osti- 
nato among the harp, second violin, and the second viola. 



2nd Violin 



2nd Viola 



Harp 



I \ % | 



£ 




^^ 



S 



£ 



£ 



'>'■ i i % U I I 



£ 



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Figure 3.15. Page 6, measures 42-43 

Another ostinato can be seen between measures 112 and 115, 
and measures 168 through 171. 

With regard to instrumentation, Copland has scored the 
symphony for an enlarged orchestra, especially in the 
percussion section where he uses a variety of pitched and 
nonpitched instruments. The instrumentation for the Dance 
Symphony is illustrated below. 



1 Flauto piccolo 

2 Flauti grandi 
2 Oboi 

1 Corno Inglese 

1 Clarinetto piccolo in D 

2 Clarinetti in A 
1 Clarinetto basso 



35 



2 Fagotti 

1 Contrafagotto 
4 Corni in F 

3 Trombe in C 

2 Pistoni in B-flat 

3 Tromboni 

1 Tuba 
Timpani 
Cassa 
Piatti 

Tam-Tam, Tamburo Militare, Tamburion, 
Legno, Triangolo, Rattle, Zilofone 
Piano 

2 Arpe 
Celesta 
Quintuor a corde 



With such a large orchestra, the composer is able to produce 
some interesting orchestral colors. Perhaps, the most in- 
teresting color used during the first movement is the effect 
that Copland achieves by scoring for xylophone, woodblock, 
piano, and horn in measures 104 through 106, and measures 
112 through 116. The composer also utilizes a variety of 
instrumental effects. In the strings, for example, these 
effects include muted and pizzicato playing, harmonics, 
glissandos, col legno, and sul tasto. An example of the 
muted strings can be seen in the opening bars of the piece 
between the violins and violas. 



Con. Sord. 



J>~ j pil 



2= 



s 



s^p 



± 



Figure 3.16. Page 3, measures 2-5 



36 

The most pronounced use of pizzicato playing can be seen in 
measures fifty-six through sixty-one. The effect of produc- 
ing harmonics on the strings can be seen in measures forty- 
eight through fifty-five in the violins, and in the harp in 
measures 203 through 20 5. 



k 



li 



^m 



1 



^s 



Figure 3.17. Page 32, measures 203-205 

The col legno effect can be seen in the second violins in 
measures sixty-two through sixty-five. 




* 



f- 



&£* 



Col legno 



Figure 3.18. Page 11, measures 62-64 

Copland also uses an effect in which half of a group of 
strings will play pizzicato and the other half avco. The 
composer labels this effect half pizzicato. There are num- 
erous examples of this effect throughout the first movement. 
The first violins use this effect in measures sixty-six 
through seventy-six. The glissando effect is used in the 
first and second violins in measures 157 and 158. 




Figure 3.19. Page 23, measures 157-158 

The sul tasto effect, which frequently appears in the French 
impressionist school of writing, instructs the player to bow 
slightly over the finger board. The effect can be found in 
measures 201 and 202 in the second violins. 



2: 



\~7T 



qj£ B * 



l 






S 



Sul tasto 

Figure 3.20. Page 32, measures 201-202 

Muted playing for brass instruments is also used. In the 
introduction, the opening bars begin with muted trumpets. 
The solo for the trombone, in measures twenty-two through 
twenty-seven, calls for muted playing as well. The horns 
use an effect known as auivvt. The effect calls for a harsh 
and "brassy" tone quality and is commonly found in the horn 
section. The effect can be seen in measures 102 and 108. 



38 



Horn 



_L 



z 



z: 



s 



4. Cuiyrg 



£ 



S 



it 



Horn 



i 



f 



Cuivvt 



SE 



/ ^ 



Figure 3.21. Page 15, measure 10 2 



Second Movement 



The second movement has a much slower tempo than the 
first. Andante moderato ( J = 88) is the tempo marking. 
This movement is built around two themes linked together by 
transitions. The second movement does not follow any 
traditional design and is characterized by subtle hints of 
polytonality. During the first theme, for example, F and D 
tonal center are suggested; whereas, during the second 
theme, C-sharp and D tonal centers are implied. The tonal 
levels of this movement are diagrammed below. 



39 



1st Theme 
1 




(Trans.) 


2nd Theme 


1 

D/F 

Meas. 208 

1st Theme 
1 


(Trans. ) 


(253) 

2nd Theme 


D/C-sharp 
2 64 

(Trans. ) 


1 

D/F 
289 


(306) 


D/C-sharp 
323 


(330) 



Figure 3.22. Tonal Levels of the Second Movement 

The first theme, which enters in the English horn, 
begins in measure 209. 



k 



1 



v 7 - ■=■ :=: 



■TnT' nr r T'r - r 



a 



Figure 3.23. Page 33, measures 209-212 

A close examination of the first theme shows that it is 
comprised of descending chromatic half steps. 



2Z 



fe 



s 



zz 



ZZX 



Figure 3.24 



The theme is played again in measures 213 through 220; 
however, this time, an extension has been added. 



40 





Figure 3.25. Page 33, measures 213-220 

There are various treatments of this theme, using the 
chromatic half step concept, beginning in measure 221. One 
such treatment is played by the oboe in measures 221 through 
2 24. 



fat feet 



S 



ff ff^ J JD 




Figure 3.26. Pages 33-34, measures 221-224 

Another example can be seen in measures 228 through 230 and 
is played by the clarinets. 



.I.W i 'f^fi'in r=f i 



Figure 3.27. Page 34, measures 2 28-2 30 



The first theme is played the final time, before the 
transition, by the English horn in measures 241 through 244. 



41 

Another repetition of the theme is also played between 
measures 245 and 249. The transition begins in measure 253, 
and finishes its statement in measure 2 64. 

The second theme is played in measures 264 through 266 
and consists of only four notes. 



U 



12: 



5 



2 



3S 



:= t. 



r? — cs- 



SS 



Figure 3.28. Page 37, measures 264-266 

The second theme is played again in measures 266 through 
272. During this time, a different rhythm pattern is used, 
and two more notes are added to give a total of six tones. 



*± 



k 



^ 



1 




K 



2" 



is 



i^MMM 



% 



m 



Figure 3.29. Page 37, measures 266-272 



A close examination of these six tones shows the formation 
of a whole tone scale on D. 



42 



Z 



k 



5 



|= { . & 5| 



ZZ 



359 



22: 



Figure 3.30 

The use of the whole tone scale represents Copland's determ- 
ination to move away from the feeling of centralization or 
stability which is associated with traditional scales. 
Measures 280 through 289 show an expansion of the second 
theme and are played by the bassoon. 




ly^yy 



t y \f 



% 



^ip 



5 



Figure 3.31. Page 38, measures 280-289 



The first theme returns in measure 289 in the English horn. 
The second theme completes its statement in this section in 
measure 301. There is another transitional section begin- 
ning in measure 305 that concludes in measure 322. During 



the transition, there is a melodic sequence that is built on 
the notes B, C, F-sharp, G, C-sharp, A, and D. A majority 
of this sequence is played by the violins with various other 
instruments entering occasionally and playing parts of the 
sequence. The climax of this movement, in measure 3 22, 
marks the end of the transitional section. The second theme 
returns in measures 323 through 330. Measures 331 through 
340 serve as transitional material to the final movement. 

With respect to harmony, the movement has some implica- 
tions of polytonality . The celesta, for example, plays a 
figure which implies an F tonal center in measures 2 08 
through 215. 



k 




d 



+ it' 




sk 






l^^ 



f 



~ 



rfsp 



Figure 3.32. Page 33, measures 208-215 



The cello, however, has suggested a D tonal center, 



m b 1 1 



J'*'^"— "4^ 



f 



s 



Figure 3.33. Page 33, measures 209-217 



44 

Thus, the result of these two tonal centers, sounding 
simultaneously, is polytonality. These same two tonal 
centers can be seen again in measures 225 through 2 28 
between the bass clarinet and cello, and in measures 241 
through 248 between the celesta and cello. Beginning in 
measure 265, Copland has established C-sharp and D tonal 
centers. This is accomplished through the C-sharp arpeggios 
in the harp and the melodic whole tone scale on D. 




Figure 3.34. Page 37, measures 2 65-2 68 



The same polytonality previously mentioned can be seen on 
the repeat of each theme throughout the movement. Within 
this movement, as with the first movement, Copland has taken 
a horizontal approach to writing. Chordal harmonies are all 
but eliminated, and when they do occur, it is because of the 
interplay of melodic lines. 

With a tempo marking of Andante moderato ( J = 88), 
the rhythmic activity of this movement is very conservative. 



45 

Except for a few instances where the 2/4 meter signature is 
used, the entire movement has a 3/4 meter signature. At 
times, Copland does manage to escape a strong metric pulse 
through the use of ties. The second and third measures of 
the first theme are good examples of this phenomenon. 




Figure 3.35. Page 33, measures 209-212 

With reference to orchestration, the composer has used 
a variety of solo instruments and as little doubling as 
possible. The entire movement is built around one large 
climax. The composition begins softly (ppp) , and builds to 
a triple forte (fff) at the climax in measure 323. Copland 
also uses many orchestral colors, some of which are for 
strings. Muted playing for strings can be seen in measured 
209 through 212 in the violins, along with the production of 
harmonics. 



Violin 

I 



Violin 
II 



Con Sord. 



X 



E3E 



k 



Con Sord. 



T=3=E 



h 



f 



f 



f 



3 



5 



Figure 3.36. Page 33, measures 209-212 



46 

The violas illustrate the half avoo and half pizzicato 
effect in measure 211. In measure 221, the second violins 
are instructed to play half with mutes and half without 
mutes. There is also the use of a glissando in the harp in 
measures 328 through 3 30. 




Figure 3.37. Page 45, measures 328-330 

Trills can also be observed in the upper woodwinds in 
measures 323 through 329. The cuivvt effect is used in the 
horns in measure 3 30. During the transition, Copland has 
used a surprisingly new effect. The effect calls for the 
viola to play a quarter-tone. 



L 



I* 



*) 



n 



*r i n 



jfe he b 



± 



*) = h tone 
Figure 3.38. Page 46, measures 339-340 
The composer uses the quarter-tone effect several times in a 
composition entitled Vitebsk. When asked whether or not 



47 

his quarter-tone is to be interpreted as a jazz inflection, 
Copland is quick to point out that this is not the intent. 

Third Movement 

The third movement is built around the development of 
three themes. In regard to form, this movement does not 
follow any strict mold of formal design. The tonal levels 
and thematic material are diagrammed below. 



1st Theme 



2nd Theme 



(Buttress) 



(Trans. ) 



Meas. 341 



(366) 



F 
(374) 



(400) 



3rd Theme 



2nd Theme 



D 
416 



G 
440 



1st Theme 1st Theme Prime 

(Buttress) (Buttress ) 



(453) 



G 

472 



(480) 



F 
500 



2nd Theme 



1st Theme 



F/E-flat 
514 



1st Theme Prime 



2nd Theme 



G 

534 

Coda 



G 
542 



C 

548 



571 



Figure 3.39. Tonal Levels of the Third Movement 



Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



48 



k 



is 



P 



m 



fffff i vff f\M 



i=£=k 



I 



JL. 






Figure 3.40. Page 46, measures 341-345 

The first theme implies a G tonal center. The theme is 
repeated in measures 346 through 351. In measures 352 
through 3 57, the theme is played by the trumpets. Although 
the theme is changed somewhat from its original statement, 
the essential character still remains the same. 



te 



mm 



BSE 



@ 



s r ; r 






± 



fc 



1 



a 



^Si 



5 



2=5= 



p 



Figure 3.41. Page 48, measures 352-357 

Measures 360 through 365 mark the final time the theme is 
heard in this section. Although the new theme does not 
enter until measure 374, measures 366 through 373 serve as 
linking material between the first theme and the second 
theme. The connecting link will be called a buttress 



49 

because of its return later in the composition to serve the 
same purpose. The second theme enters in measure 374 and 
immediately establishes an F tonal center. 



:: 



££ 



1 F F F F 



y — r 



¥ 



it 



Figure 3.42. Page 52, measures 374-375 

The theme is heard again in measures 376 through 382. 
Beginning in measure 382, the second theme undergoes a 
slight change. 



± 



1 



3E 



i ft 



BE 



k 



SI 



ez: 



Figure 3.43. Page 53, measures 3 82-3 85 

The second theme is played twice between measures 382 and 
3 93. Measures 394 through 399 lead into a transitional 
section which begins in measure 400. The transition is 
based on material from the second theme, and is concluded in 
measure 415. In measure 416, the third theme enters in the 
oboe and English horn. 



50 




Figure 3.44. Pages 57-58, measures 416-420 



The third theme is played in a variety of forms until 
measure 439. At this point, the second theme returns in 
measures 440 through 4 53. In measures 454 through 471, the 
buttress returns in a slightly different form; however, the 
essential character remains unchanged. The first theme 
material returns in measures 472 through 47 9 and the 
buttress is heard again in measures 480 through 4 99. In 
measures 500 through 513, the first theme material returns 
at a slower tempo and with a change in rhythm. The theme is 
played by the first violins while excerpts from the buttress 
are played in the background by various other instruments. 



51 



Violin 

I 



Violin 
II 



Viola 



Cello 



Bass 




wM 



w 



s 



3= 



^^ 



s 



i 



£7 



5z£ 



£ 



±± 



S 



B 



f^ 



Z 



v- 



e 



S 



/ uhJ In 



^ 



i 



fe 



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?= 



Figure 3.45. Page 67, measures 500-503 



The original tempo is resumed in measure 514, and the second 
theme, with its various treatments, is played between mea- 
sures 514 and 5 33. In measures 534 through 541, the first 
theme is heard again and is played by the trumpets in a 
different rhythm pattern. 



52 



± 



\^U\>\LJjl\\^ l l t\U U L 




■,- 



* 



^-* 



Jl 



> ^ < 



gpfeg 






PP 



Figure 3.46. Pages 71-72, measures 534-541 

The first theme material returns once again at a slower 
tempo in measures 542 through 547. In this statement, only 
the ostinato from the buttress is used as background materi- 
al. Statements of the second theme material continue until 
measure 570. During the coda, there are several statements 
of thematic material from this movement and the first move- 
ment. The listing below shows the occurrence of these 
statements. 



First Theme 


First 


Movement 


571- 


-675 


First Theme 


First 


Movement 


595- 


-604 


First Theme 


Third 


Movement 


606- 


-631 


Second Theme 


Third 


Movement 


632- 


-635 


First Theme 


Third 


Movement 


636- 


-648 


Second Theme 


Third 


Movement 


638- 


-648 



The movement begins with hints of polyharmony. The 
first theme implies a G tonal center. The pedal point, 
however, implies a D tonal center. The D tonal center is 
further reinforced by a C-sharp leading tone. The G tonal 
center over a D tonal center implies a tonic/dominant (I 



53 

over V) relationship. The polyharmony is used throughout 
the statement of the first theme. In the first statement of 
the buttress in measures 366 through 373, a D tonal center 
is emphasized through the ostinato rhythm in the bassoon, 
contra-bassoon, cello, and double bass. 



5EB85 S 



TT 



r -r 



> ' > ' w ' J> 



~r -r 



m 



m 



t 5 -r -r 

Figure 3.47. Page 51, measures 366-369 



The harp and piano play some very traditional harmonies in 
measures 396 through 3 99. These harmonies include the 
B-flat, and A-flat triad. 




Figure 3.48. Page 55, measures 396-397 

In the statement of the third theme, the cello outlines a D 
tonal center. 



54 



3 



Figure 3.49. Page 58, measures 417-422 



When the buttress is stated a second time, the ostinato 
rhythm that accompanies it implies an F tonal center. 



± 



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m 



m 



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at 



Z=E 



i 



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teE 



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Figure 3.50. Pages 61-62, measures 454-457 



The same type of harmonic structure is used to imply an F 
tonal center at the Meno messo in measure 500. A different 
tonal center is emphasized in measures 522 through 5 33. The 
new tonal center is E-flat. The polyharmony of I over V can 
again be seen in the return of the first theme in measures 
534 through 541. In general, a majority of the harmonies 
throughout this movement remain clear and well defined. The 
last chord of the movement, however, has a very harsh sound. 
This is partly due to the fact that the tones in the cluster 



55 

are separated by no more than a whole step. The chord 
cluster contains the notes G, A, and B-flat. 



3 



t 



Figure 3.51. Page 87, measure 655 

In regard to rhythm, the movement is very active. The 
tempo marking is Allegro vivo ( J = 200). With such a fast 
tempo, syncopated rhythms, and polyrhythms, Copland is able 
to achieve a striking rhythmic effect. The first example of 
syncopation can be seen in the first theme. 



V 



2: 



BE 



vf pippj ph\f ^m 



mm 



*=^ 



& 



53 



S 



Figure 3.52. Page 46, measures 341-345 

Beginning in measure 3 66, Copland uses an ostinato rhythm in 
a 6/8 meter signature. This rhythmic ostinato is character- 
ized by the use of shifting accents. 



56 



'mvu 



$ 




Figure 3.53. Page 51, measures 366-370 

In measures 396 through 399, Copland uses a 3/8 time signa- 
ture, but has shifted the accents to give a 2/8 pulsation. 






s 



£ 



Sg 



£* 



^A. ' i i ^ j 



? 



Figure 3.54. Page 55, measures 396-399 

Beginning in measure 472 and ending in measure 479, Copland 
uses the first of his polyrhythms. Although still writing 
in a 3/8 meter signature, the composer manages to achieve 
three different meter signatures or pulsations by shifting 
accents. The first, played by the upper woodwinds and 
piano, gives a 3/16 metric pulse feeling. The second, 
played by the violins, indicates a 2/8 meter pulsation. The 
third, played by the viola and cello, indicates a 3/8 meter 
pulsation. 



57 



Woodwind ^ 
Piano ]£ 



Violin g 



Viola 
Cello 




> i > \±A 



> 

JL. 




Figure 3.55. Page 64, measures 472-477 

The horns and trumpets, in measures 534 through 541, play 
two different meter pulsations. The horns are playing in a 
3/8 meter signature while the trumpets are playing in a 3/16 
meter signature. In measures 552 through 558, the horns are 
again playing a 3/8 rhythmic pulse; but, the violin and 
viola are playing a 2/8 meter pulsation. Another example of 



58 

the polyrhythmic effect can also be seen in measures 60 6 
through 614. 

The use of incomplete chords is still prevalent 
throughout the movement to give the "open" or "empty" 
quality associated with Copland's music. The composer also 
manages to use a variety of instrumental effects. The 
violin and xylophone give an example of the trill at the 
beginning of this movement. In addition to the trill, the 
second violins are instructed to play sul ponticello. An 
example of the cuivre effect can be seen in the horns in 
measures 352 through 3 60. Muted playing for brass instru- 
ments is shown in measures 366 through 374. In measures 37 4 
through 377, -pizzicato playing in the strings can be ob- 
served. The glissando can be seen in measures 559 and 600 
in the viola, violin, and trombone. 

General Observations 

The analysis of the Dance Symphony shows that the tonal 
levels of each movement are not consistent with any classic 
design. The first movement has some resemblance to the 
sonata-allegro design. The second movement is also uncon- 
ventional in design. The third movement is the most uncon- 
ventional of all. Since thematic material from the other 
movements occurs in the last movement, this would qualify 
the overall symphony for the cyclic principle of structure. 



59 

The tonal levels of the first movement center around E; 
whereas, in the second movement, there is a strong tendency 
toward polytonality . Although the tonal levels in the last 
movement are often well defined, no consistent pattern is 
found in the order of their occurrence. In regard to har- 
mony, the tonal levels of each movement tend to be ambigu- 
ous. The first movement, for example, has an ambiguity 
which is created between E major and E minor. The ambiguity 
is also carried over into the chord structure. When Copland 
does use chords, they are usually constructed with one or 
more of the tones omitted. The third of the chord, in some 
cases, is omitted. This phenomenon serves two purposes. 
The first is the ambiguity that results in chord quality, 
and the second is the "empty" effect that results from a 
chord built around this principle. The symphony also shows 
indications of polyharmony. A majority of the polyharmony 
is built around a tonic-dominant (I over V) relationship. 
In the second movement, the harmonies center around two 
tonal centers. These two centers are D/F and D/C-sharp. 
Copland also utilizes the whole tone scale in the second 
movement. The implication of this scale is the destruction 
of a stabilization or key center which can be associated with 
other scales. Thus, the result is an even further move away 
from conventional tonality. In every movement, Copland has 
taken a linear approach to writing. Through the linear 



60 

approach, chordal harmonies as such are mostly eliminated. 
Several of the harmonies that do occur, however, are the 
result of the interplay of melodic lines. 

Copland's themes vary from short fragments to long syn- 
copated ones. The themes in the first and last movements 
are longer and more syncopated. The themes in the second 
movement are built around descending half steps and whole 
steps. There is also the use of the whole tone scale as 
thematic material in the second movement. Although the 
composer manages to change his themes rhythmically or inter- 
vallically, the overall character of the themes remains the 
same. An example can be seen in the second movement. 
There, Copland has applied the half step and whole step 
idea, of which the first theme is composed, in a variety of 
melodic statements. In almost every case, the first theme 
is not quoted exactly, but the essential character remains 
the same because of the intervallic relationship of whole 
and half steps used in the melodic statements. Copland also 
uses stretto in the first movement. The composer has linked 
the entire symphony together, without pauses between move- 
ments, through transitional material. 

Syncopation can be observed in the rhythmic content of 
this symphony. The syncopation adds to the "dance-like" 
character of the work. The composer also uses ostinatos in 



61 

this composition. One of the ostinatos in the third move- 
ment is characterized by shifting accents. The most impor- 
tant aspect about rhythm is the use of polyrhythms . By 
shifting accents, Copland is able to change the pulsation of 
a given meter. In the third movement, for example, Copland 
uses a 3/8 meter signature. Along with a 3/8 meter pulsa- 
tion, the composer, by shifting accents, manages to achieve 
a 2/8 meter pulsation and a 3/16 meter pulsation simultane- 
ously. It must be pointed out that the composer does not 
combine more than three meters at any given time. Copland 
makes the following statements regarding Boulanger's atti- 
tude toward his use of polyrhythms. 

She made much of their appearance in my 
own work, and rather pointed them out 
to me as one of the new features of the 
music in the '20's, different from what 
the typical young French student would 
be producing. She showed great inter- 
est in my rhythmic experiments, and 
made me more conscious of my own fi 
potentialities as a rhythmicist. 

Copland also gives conductor's notes, directly on the score, 
for subdividing the beats in the polyrhythmic passages. 

In orchestrating this work, the composer tends to treat 
the instruments in a soloistic fashion in the first and 
second movements; whereas, in the third movement, he uses a 



Smith, p. 65. 



62 

lot of doubling. There is also the use of many instrumental 
effects. For the brass, the composer utilizes muted and 
cuivre playing. For the strings, Copland uses such effects 
as half arco and half pizzicato playing, glissando s, muted 
playing, col legno , sul tasto, quarter tone, and sul ponti- 
cello. The composer does not use more than two of these 
effects together at any given time. The symphony also calls 
for an expanded percussion section. Through the use of 
these instrumental effects, and an expanded percussion 
section, the composer is able to achieve a variety of 
colors. 

The Dance' Symphony is a program symphony which adheres 
to the cyclic principle of design. Through the use of such 
elements as polyrhythms, polyharmonies, and polytonality , 
Copland is able to attain some very interesting sounds and 
effects from the orchestral medium. 



CHAPTER IV 

FIRST SYMPHONY 



The First Symphony was originally written for organ and 
orchestra. The symphony, entitled, Symphony for- Organ and 
Orchestra, was dedicated to Nadia Boulanger. The Symphony 
for Organ and Orchestra received its premiere performance on 
January 11, 1925, by the New York Symphony Orchestra under 
the direction of Walter Damrosch. Copland completed the 
orchestral version, without the organ, in 1928. The new 
version was called the First Symphony. A study of the two 
works indicates that this was not a difficult task, the 
reason being that during the original version of the work, 
the organ was treated not as a solo instrument with accom- 
panying orchestra but as an integral part of the orchestra. 

There is a difference of opinion between Smith and 
Berger regarding the first performance of the First Sym- 
phony. Smith is of the opinion that the first performance 
took place in Berlin, by the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, in 
December, 1931. She also states that the Scherzo movement 
was performed on November 4, 1927, by the Philadelphia 



Julia Smith, Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribu- 
tion to American Music (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 
Inc. , 1955) , p. 75. 

2 

Ibid., p. 77. 

63 



64 

Orchestra in Carnegie Hall. Berger contradicts Smith by 
stating that the first performance took place on January 18 , 
1934, by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Berger does, 

however, agree with Smith on the performance of the Scherzo 

. 4 
movement. 

The performance time for the symphony is twenty-five 
minutes. 



First Movement 

The first movement, entitled Prelude, is built around 
one theme. The tonal level of this movement centers around 
G-sharp. Since there is no standard format for a "prelude," 
this movement could be regarded as being in free form. 
Copland states that free form is the "absence of a tradi- 
tional strict form or design." The tonal levels are 
diagrammed below. 



1st Theme 



G-sharp B/F G-sharp D-flat G-sharp 
Meas. 1 29 43 51 62 



Figure 4.1. Tonal Levels of the First Movement 



3 Ibid. f p. 77. 

4 
Arthur Berger, Aaron Copland (Westport, Connecticut: 
Greenwood Press Publishers, 1971), p. 101. 

5 

Statement by Aaron Copland, Composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



65 

The movement begins with the tempo marking Andante 
( = 108). Immediately, the first theme is heard as it is 
played by the flute. 






LiF"[^r 



Figure 4.2. Page 1, measures 2-5 

The theme undergoes a different treatment in its next state- 
ment. The first three notes are in retrograde, and the 
theme can be heard in the clarinet. 






Figure 4.3. Page 1, measures 10-13 

There is another treatment of the thematic material in 
measures eighteen through twenty. In measure twenty-nine, 
the tonal center has changed to B and F. There is also an 
ostinato rhythm which accompanies the change in tonal 
center. The intervallic content of the ostinato theme is 
the intervals of a minor third and a perfect fifth. 



66 



Horn 
in F 



k 



a \ iJ'-'-f j'i ! i p^ 



Figure 4.4. Page 3, measures 29-30 

Julia Smith calls this ostinato theme a motto. 6 The motto 
can be heard in measures twenty-nine through thirty-nine. 
Even though the motto seems insignificant at this time, it 
will soon become the unifying force for the entire symphony. 
The G-sharp tonal center is resumed in measure forty-three. 
The thematic material in measures forty-three through fifty 
is identical to that in measures ten through seventeen; how- 
ever, this time, the melody is played by the horn. The 
opening melodic material can be seen in measures fifty-two 
through fifty-four, and is again played by the flute. 



k 



\l 






Figure 4.5. Page 4, measures 52-54 

The motto theme can be heard in measures sixty-three through 
sixty-five, and is played by the trumpet. In measures 



Smith, p. 78. 



67 

sixty-seven through sixty-nine, the motto theme can be seen 
again. 



k 



5 



N*» h 



i^^m 



k 



tm 



^^ 



-i - — j jp . 
ip.. 



^^ 



P 



35 



P* 



SE 



& 



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Figure 4.6. Page 6, measures 67-69 

The movement ends with the statement of the first theme by 
the flute. 

Copland has begun this movement in a G-sharp tonal 
center. Both the ostinato accompaniment and melody, in 
measures six through twenty, indicate the G-sharp center. 
Measures twenty-nine through thirty-five indicate a poly- 
tonality. The motto theme displays a B tonal center, 
whereas, the cello and viola suggest an F tonal center. 



68 



Horn 
in F 



Viola 
Cello 



s 



2: 



r 



I j i i 



-* — 



i 

r 



- 1 i § i 



r 



g 



i 



^^ 



T 



-v 



r 



i 



I 



-v 



r r r 

Figure 4.7. Page 3, measures 29-32 



Measures seventy-two through seventy-four also lend them- 
selves to polytonality. The tonal center suggests D and 
G-sharp centers. The G-sharp center is played by the second 
violin, while the D center is played by the cello and 
bassoon. 



Violin 
II 



Bassoon 

II 
Cello 



k 



w r ♦ 



^=1^ 



g I j 



e 



* 



r e 



g 



p 



*F= 



Figure 4.8. Page 6, measures 72-7 3 



69 

The entire movement has a 6/8 meter signature, except 
for measures eighty-one and eighty-nine, which are in 3/8. 
On one occasion, Copland changes the 6/8 meter pulsation to 
that of a 4/8 meter pulsation by shifting accents through 
the use of grace notes. 



3: 



k 



& 



" 1 i 1 



Figure 4.9. Page 5, measures 64-65 

There are also several rhythmic ostinatos in this movement. 
One such ostinato can be seen in measures six through 
twenty. Another ostinato can be seen in measures twenty- 
nine through thirty-five. The latter consists of four 
chords which are repeated for seven measures. Occasionally, 
the motto theme is treated with an ostinato rhythmic pat- 
tern. An augmentation of the motto theme and its original 
rhythm pattern are presented in measures twenty-nine through 
thirty-five. 

The instrumentation for this symphony is listed below. 



1 Flauto Piccolo 

2 Flauti Grand i 
2 Oboi 

1 Corno Inglese 

2 Clarinetti in B-flat 

1 Clarinetto Basso in B-flat 

2 Fagotti 

1 Contrafagotto 



70 



1 Alto Saxophone in E-flat 
8 Corni in F 
5 Trombe in C 
3 Tromboni 

1 Tuba 
Timpani 
Percussione 

Tambour Militare, Tambour de Basque, 
Wood Block, Piatti, Tam-Tam, Cassa 
Zilafone, Glockenspiel 
Celesta 

2 Arpe 
Violine I 
Violine II 
Viole 

Violoncelli 
Contrabassi 



For the most part, the orchestration of the first movement 
only calls for a portion of the orchestra. The composer has 
used such instrumental effects as muted, pizzicato , and sul 
ponticello playing. Muted playing, by the strings, can be 
seen throughout this movement. One such example is seen in 
measure five. Pizzicato playing can be observed in mea- 
sures fifty-one through fifty-three. 



ptzz 



arco 



pxzz 



'? \ \ v \ \ Hj f g I \ j jj ^^ 



Figure 4.10. Page 4, measures 51-53 



71 

Sul pontiaello playing is presented in measures fifty-one 
through fifty-seven. Measures sixty-three through sixty- 
five show an example of muted playing for trumpets. In this 
movement, Copland has treated the instruments in a soloistic 
fashion; thus, there is little doubling except for emphasis 
or color. 

Second Movement 

The second movement, entitled Scherzo, has a tempo 
marking of Motto allegro ( J = 160). The word scherzo has 
a specific meaning with regard to formal design. The 
scherzo is usually the third movement of a sonata, symphony, 
or quartet. In some instances, this form was used as a 
replacement for the minuet. Scherzo is an Italian word 
meaning "joke." Much like the minuet, the scherzo is 
followed by a trio after which the scherzo returns. The 
Harvard Dictionary of Music reveals that, "the distinguish- 
ing features of the scherzo are rapid tempo in 3/4 meter, 
vigorous rhythm, a certain abruptness as though involving 
elements of surprise and whim, and a kind of bustling humor 
that ranges from the playful to the sinister." 7 The second 
movement does have some of these qualities, and also has a 



Willi Apel, Harvard dictionary of Music (Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 
1972) , 2nd ed. , p. 755. 



72 

close resemblance to the schevzo design. The trio is re- 
placed with a blues section; thus, the element of surprise 
is introduced. With regard to tonal levels, the scherzo and 
trio have a mediant relationship. The tonal levels of this 
movement are shown below. 



1 


1st Theme 




2nd Theme 
1 


(Dev.) 


1 
c 

Meas. 


92 




1 

C 
128 


(171) 


Blues 
1 




(Trans. ) 


1st Theme 
I 


2nd Theme 
1 


1 

A 

215 


1st Theme 
1 


(266) 

Coda 
1 


1 

C 

274 


1 

C 
301 



C 3 40 

Figure 4.11. Tonal Levels of the Second Movement 

The first theme is introduced by the oboe over an osti- 
nato figure. 



1 



/ f 



£ f. C 



s fit- Lit. 

/ / / / / / 



i WCWHLf 



£ 



rrrrrrr i 'f i i.ruf gEEp^ 



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Figure 4.12. Page 8, measures 94-100 



73 

For the next twenty- two measures, there are various treat- 
ments of the ostinato and first theme material. One such 
treatment is played by the alto saxophone in measures 111 
through 117. 



3 



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>s > 



\tt.tutr,ir 



jCL 



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li £ 



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Figure 4.13. Page 9, measures 111-117 

The second theme enters in measure 128; however, in contrast 
to the first theme, the second theme has a lyrical quality. 
The theme also closely resembles a French folksong entitled 
Au Clair De La Lune. 




Figure 4.14. Page 10, measures 128-132 

During the statements of the second theme, the ostinato 
rhythm is still present. Immediately following the state- 
ment of the theme by the flute, there is another statement 



74 

of the theme by the first violin in augmentation. The same 
rhythm is used in all the statements of the theme by the 
flute; whereas, a different rhythm is used in the statements 
of the theme by the first violin. The second statement of 
the theme has a different melodic pattern. 




Figure 4.15. Pages 11-12, measures 137-141 



The melody is echoed in the violin as follows. 



1 



i r 



i r 



is 



m 



Z£ 



E fTT^TT 



— i %f f ■ * 



ZE 



S 



Figure 4.16. Pages 12-13, measures 141-147 



The third statement of the theme acts as the second phrase 
of the theme. 




! hi, i h m 



Figure 4.17. Page 13, measures 146-150 



75 



The second phrase is again repeated in the violin 



v 



1 



El 



i 



i i 



~k 



i r 



22: 



-A- 



^^ 



Figure 4.18. Page 13-14, measures 148-153 

Measures 154 through 170 show various treatments of the 
second theme material. The flute and oboe, for example, 
illustrate one such treatment in measures 154 through 164. 
The development section can be seen in measures 171 through 
214. In measures 199 through 214, the motto theme, from the 
first movement, returns in a B-flat key center. The motto 
theme is used in an imitation in which four instruments are 
involved — horn, trumpet, bassoon and flute. Measures 2 04 
through 207 show a return of the first theme material before 
the trio begins in measure 215. The trio or middle section 
introduces new material. The new material is the blues, and 
the alto saxophone is used to add to the overall timbre. 



£ 



£* 



£ 



rEf-M-fr 



t 



zzsEza 



£ 



£ 



7ZZ. 



JZL 



zc 



Figure 4.19. Page 24, measures 215-221 



The blues theme is heard again in measures 222 through 228. 



76 



|v l rlrl-i^ r l l Tf'T'fri-i S 



k 



a a 



e- 



1 



Figure 4.20. Page 25, measures 222-228 

A close examination of the tones will show that the composer 
had used the flatted third, fifth and seventh degrees of the 
major scale. Thus, the alteration of the tones in this 
manner will result in a blues scale. 



fcr 



1 



;: 



/ 2 



£ 



a e 



£ 



? i <3 



2z: 



a rV 



3 4 5 £ 
Figure 4.21. 







There are various treatments of the blues melody by the alto 
saxophone (measures 229 through 235) and by the clarinet 
(measures 237 through 241) . The original blues melody 
returns in measures 249 through 252, and the motto theme 
returns in the horns in measures 255 through 258. 



;i 



S£g 



^ s 



^^ 



f=^R 



Figure 4.22. Pages 28-29, measures 255-258 



77 

Measures 266 through 273 serve as transitional material to 
the return of the first theme material. First theme materi- 
al is heard in measures 274 through 3 00. At this point, the 
second theme returns in augmentation as it has earlier. The 
section, measures 301 to 331, is almost identical to the 
previous statements of the second theme material in measures 
332 through 3 39. The coda begins in measure 3 40, and ends 
in measure 390. 

The composer manages to maintain a C tonal center 
throughout the first section of this movement. An example 
of the C tonal center can be seen in measures 92 and 93. It 
should also be mentioned that the C tonal center is implied 
through an ostinato rhythm. 



m n 1 1 1 



#: 



£z 



3 



y B b 



£ 



m 



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rfc 



=£ 



F 



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Figure 4.23. Page 8, measures 92-93 



2 



On occasions, Copland uses the C tonal center as a pedal 
point, and above this center, he will use a variety of im- 
plied chords. In measures 118 and 119, the C center is 
played by the bassoon, whereas, intervals of a fifth are 



78 

played by the flutes above this center. The intervals above 
the center imply an E-flat and a D-flat chord; thus, the 
result is polyharmony. 



tm 



n 



± 



i 1 1 ' " ^ 



k 



3 



5 



n H * n 



* 




Figure 4.24. Page 9, measures 118-119 

During the middle section of this movement, the tonal center 
changes to A. The E (in the cello) serves as a dominant 
pedal point; whereas, the B in the upper voices suggests an 
added second. 



£ 



ife 



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i y f p I 



£ 



Figures 4.25. Page 24, measure 215 

Beginning in measure 227, the tonal center has changed to B. 
The same type of chord structure, used previously in the A 
center, is also used in this center. In the second return 



79 

of the first section, the composer, in measures 289 and 290, 
has used several different triads over an implied C tonal 
center. These triads include D, C, B, A and G. 



| r ffj fgpjgl My | 



s 



> 



^£i =g 



I-* 



7= ▼" 

> 



^zaz^-r-i 



e=s 



5 



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Figure 4.26. Page 32, measures 289-290 



> 



In measures 292 and 293, the composer used a D major triad 
over a C center and, in measure 295, a B major triad over a 
C center. The use of these triads over the C center results 
in polyharmony. Beginning in measure 379, Copland has used 
a series of major triads with an added second and a flatted 
third. 



m 



dfc£ 



£ 



± 



fc 



£ 



£=£ 



1 



s 



EE 



Figure 4.27. Page 43, measure 37 9 



80 
The composer uses the 3/4 meter signature for a major- 
ity of the movement. In the middle section, Copland uses 
the 4/4 meter signature. At the beginning of this movement, 
there is an ostinato that is used mostly in the first and 
third sections of the Scherzo. 



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Figure 4.28. Page 8, measures 92-94 



In measures 97 and 98, the directions call for the performer 
to play the notes freely, accelerating. 



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Figure 4.29. Page 8, measures 97-98 



Measures 108 through 110 illustrate the shifting of accents 
in a 3/4 meter signature to give the pulsation of a 3/8 
meter signature. 



81 




Figure 4.30. Page 8, measures 108-109 

Copland uses the 3/8 meter pulsation simultaneously with the 
3/4 meter pulsation; thus, the result is polyrhythm. During 
the statements of the second theme, Copland uses augmenta- 
tion to increase the note values of the melody. In each of 
the three statements of the melody by the flute, the violin 
echoes the same melody, but in augmentation. In measures 
344 through 351, the composer, by shifting accents, manages 
to achieve a 2/4 meter pulsation while writing in a 3/4 
meter pulsation. 



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In measures 289 and 290, accents have also been used to 
change an 8/8 meter pulsation to a 3/8 meter pulsation. 




Figure 4.32. Page 32, measures 289-2 90 



The composer also creates an ambiguity between the 3/4 and 
6/8 meter signatures. Although the melody is written in a 
6/8 metric pulsation, it can also be played in a 3/4 metric 
pulsation. 

Copland uses a variety of orchestral effects during 
this movement. Measure 92, for instance, shows the col 
legno effect used by the violins. Although the symphony 
calls for an alto saxophone, the composer has written the 
part so that it can be played by the English horn if no 
saxophone is available. Measures 112 through 114 illustrate 
muted playing for the trumpets, while pizzicato playing for 
the strings can be found in measures 117 through 183. Muted 
passages for strings can be seen at the beginning of the 
blues section in measure 215. 

Third Movement 

The third movement, entitled Finale, has a tempo mark- 
ing of Lento ( J = 60) for measures 391 to 450, and another 
marking of Piu mosso (Allegro moderato, J = 112) for meas- 
ures 431 through 6 56. The movement is built around two 
contrasting themes, and is similar to the sonata-allegro 
design. In the exposition, the two themes remain in the 
same tonal center which conflicts with the classical sonata- 
allegro idea where two contrasting themes are used in 



83 

different tonal centers. The tonal levels of this movement 
are shown below. 



1st Theme 



2nd Theme 



1st Theme 
2nd Theme 



B 

Meas. 391 



(Dev.) 



(494) 
Coda 



B 

431 



B-flat 
468 

2nd Theme 1st Theme 



B 
571 



G-sharp 
5 94 



604 



Figure 4.33. Tonal levels of the Third Movement 

The first theme is played by the viola in measures 391 
through 402. 



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Figure 4.34. Page 45, measures 391-40 2 



84 

Beginning in measure 403, there is a stretto occurring 
between the strings in which the motto theme is used as 
material. In measure 418, the trombones play the first of 
several treatments of the first theme material. 



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During the treatments of this theme, the motto material is 
played by the cello and bass in measures 420 through 430. 
The second section begins at the Piu mosso in measure 431. 
However, the second theme does not enter until measure 4 33. 
The second theme is played by the violins and viola. 



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Figure 4.36. Page 49, measures 433-439 



85 

The motto can also be heard in an ostinato rhythmic pattern 
beginning in measure 436. The second theme is played by the 
horns (measures 451 through 457) and by the trumpets and 
trombones (measures 458 through 461) . Beginning in measure 
468, the first theme is presented in a fugato by the oboe 
and English horn. The fugato is heard for fifteen measures. 
Along with the fugato, second theme material is played by 
the bass. The first theme ends in measure 483, and the 
second theme continues until measure 493. The development 
section begins in measure 494, and ends in measure 570. In 
measure 571, the second theme returns in diminution. 



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Figure 4.37. Page 66, measures 571-57 3 



The motto theme is also played in diminution. 



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86 

The second theme is treated in a fugato manner in measures 
571 through 585. The first statement of the theme is by the 
cello and has a C tonal center. The second statement of the 
theme is by the viola and has a G center. Hence, the tradi- 
tional statement of the second entrance is on the fifth de- 
gree of the scale. The third statement of the theme is by 
the violins and has a C center. The first theme material 
returns in measures 594 through 603. 



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The coda begins at measure 604, and the movement ends in 
measure 656. In measures 627 through 629, there are three 
different statements of the motto theme. 



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There is also an augmentation of the first theme material in 
measures 627 through 639. The augmented theme is played by 
the trumpets and trombones. 



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88 

Copland has used many indications of polytonality . 
Measures 451 through 455, for instance, show an example of 
polytonality. During these measures, the composer uses 
three tonal centers simultaneously. The first, an F tonal 
center is the bass, contra-bassoon, and trombones; the 
second, an A tonal center in the horns; and the third, an 
F-sharp center in the woodwinds, trumpets, and strings. 



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89 

More often than not, Copland utilizes the motto theme in an 
ostinato rhythm to establish a tonal center or centers. The 
idea can be seen in measures 468 through 489 where a B-flat 
center is established, measures 431 through 450 where a B 
tonal center is established, and various other places 
throughout the movement. Measures 494 through 497 show 
still another indication of polytonality. In this instance, 
the bass and cello indicate an F-sharp center, and the viola 
and violin indicate a C center. Beginning in measure 571, 
another example of polytonality can be found between the 
bass and cello. The bass has established a B tonal center 
while the cello has established a C tonal center. 



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Figure 4.43. Page 66, measures 571-574 



90 



Perhaps the final example of poly tonality can be seen in 
measures 594 through 6 03. In these measures, the cello and 
glockenspiel indicate a G-sharp center, and the viola and 
bass clarinet indicate an F tonal center. 

Copland also utilizes polyharmony. An example of these 
polyharmonies can be observed in measures 428 through 4 30 
where there are two different triads sounding simultaneously 
over a C tonal center. The example below is a reduction of 
the triads that occur in measures 428 through 430. 



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Figure 4.44. Page 48, measures 428-430 



91 

Another example of polyharmony is found in measures 42 5 
through 427. These harmonies also occur over a C center. 
The following example is a reduction of the triads that 
occur in measures 425 through 4 27. 



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Figure 4.45. Page 47, measures 425-427 



The last two examples of polyharmony used major triads. The 
bottom triadic unit of the polychords is in second inver- 
sion. Persichetti states why this is important: 



The resonance of a polychord is determined 
by the intervallic structure of the bottom 
chordal unit and the power of its separate tones 
to generate overtones. The second inversion of 
the major triad as a bottom unit is the most re- 
sonant chordal unit upon which polyharmony can 
be erected, because its internal spacing is 
closest to that of the harmonic series; the 



92 



major third of the fundamental triad in close 
position is not as close to the size of the 
perfect fifth of the overtone series as is the 
perfect fourth of the six-four chord. When the 
tones of the bottom triad are spread apart, the 
fundamental position is most sonorous. 



There is also another series of polyharmonies in measures 
509 through 514; however, these chords do not adhere to the 
intervallic spacing described by Persichetti. 

Copland also uses quartal harmonies. In measures 451 
through 461, there are a series of quartal harmonies over an 
F center which changes to a B center in measure 458. The 
intervallic arrangement of the three note chords is aug- 
mented fourth and perfect fourth. 



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Figure 4.46. Pages 51-52, measures 460-461 

The quartal harmonies from measures 451 through 459 imply an 
A tonal center while the harmonies in measures 460 and 461 
are used to modulate to a different tonal center. 

In measures 607 through 609, and measures 610 through 
612, the composer uses two different chord clusters. 



g 

Vincent Persichetti, Twentieth-Century Harmony (New 
York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1961), p. 138. 



93 



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Figure 4.47. Page 70, measure 607 and measure 610 

The movement remains conservative with regard to 
rhythm. There are instances in which augmentation and 
diminution are used. A good example of diminution can be 
seen in the return of the motto theme in measure 571. 
Although Copland is writing in a 2/4 meter signature, he has 
taken the liberty to subdivide the measures where they can 
be counted also in a 3/8 meter signature. The second theme 
is used in diminution in measures 571 through 574. The use 
of augmentation occurs in the statement of the first theme 
in measures 552 through 564. The motto theme is used in 
augmentation, diminution, and its original form, simultane- 
ously, in measures 627 through 629. Copland also utilizes 
several ostinatos throughout the movement. A majority of 
the ostinatos are built around the motto theme. 

There are few orchestral effects used in this movement 
except for the use of pizzicato and staccato treatment in 
the strings. A very dense texture can be found in this 
movement. The density is created by the use of polytonal- 
ity, polyharmony, and clusters. Perhaps the most dense 
texture occurs in measures 451 through 457 where the three 
different tonal centers occur. The same effect can be seen 



94 

in measures 500 through 519, and measures 605 through 656. 
There are also instances when Copland uses a very thin and 
transparent texture, for example, in measures 432 through 
4 50, and measures 520 through 5 60. Throughout the movement, 
Copland shifts back and forth between a texture which is 
transparent to one that is dense. 

General Observations 

For the first two movements of this symphony, the tonal 
centers remain well defined. In the last movement, however, 
the tonal centers are not as clear. The uncertainty is due 
to the occurrence of polytonality , clusters, and polyhar- 
monies. There are several examples of polytonality through- 
out this composition. The first movement, for example, in 
measures 29 through 35, shows a polytonality through the use 
of a D and an F tonal center together. In the last move- 
ment, Copland has utilized as many as three tonal centers 
simultaneously. Polyharmonies are constructed in such a way 
as to achieve the maximum amount of resonance from each 
sonority. Clusters and quartal harmonies can also be found 
in the last movement. 

The analysis shows that the melodies are often very 
lyrical. The first theme of the first movement and the 
first theme of the last movement are good examples of 
lyrical melodies. The composer, in many instances, will use 



95 

augmentation and diminution in the development of his 
themes. There is also the use of stretto in his thematic 
development as well. In the second movement, Copland takes 
advantage of a melody which is derived from the blues scale. 
The scale employs the flatted third, fifth, and seventh 
degrees of the diatonic scale. The melodic structure of the 
second theme of the second movement resembles that of a 
French folksong entitled Au Clair De La Lune. The similari- 
ties in the intervallic structure of both melodies can be 
seen in the figure below. 

Copland's Theme 



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Figure 4.48. 



Since it is a documented fact that Copland studied composi- 
tion in Paris, it may also be safe to assume that he might 
have been influenced by the French folklore. 

The most important formal element in this symphony is 
the motto theme. 



96 



i i) B a — 



Figure 4. 49 

The theme occurs in a variety of forms — harmonically, 
melodically, and rhythmically. The motto theme serves as 
the unifying force for the entire composition. Since the 
theme occurs in all three movements as a unifying element, 
it would qualify this symphony for the cyclic principle of 
formal design. In regard to the form of each movement, the 
first is free in design, the second has an overal ABA 
format, and the third resembles the sonata-allegro format. 
In the second and third movement, the second theme remains 
in the same tonal center as the first theme; however, this 
is not common. The second movement does have a mediant 
relationship with respect to key centers between the first 
and second sections. It must be pointed out that the second 
movement, entitled Scherzo, also follows the traditional 
scherzo form. In the last movement where the themes return 
in the recapitulation, they occur in reverse order with the 
second theme returning first, and the first theme returning 
last. Both the second and third movements have codas. With 
respect to the formal design of each movement, the neoclass- 
ical style would apply for two reasons: first, because of 



97 

the use of traditional titles — Prelude, Scherzo, and Finale; 
and second, because each movement closely resembles some 
traditional design. 

There are many rhythmic devices employed in this 
symphony. In the first movement, there are times when 
Copland would utilize accents to change the 6/8 meter 
pulsation to a 2/8 meter pulsation. During the second 
movement, Copland uses accents to shift from a 3/4 meter 
pulsation to a 3/8 pulsation. Polyrhythms are also used in 
the second movement. The composer's most consistently used 
rhythmic device is the ostinato. These ostinatos can be 
found in all three movements. The composer utilizes such 
devices as augmentation and diminution to lengthen and 
shorten note values. 

Very few orchestral effects can be found in this 
symphony. For the few that do occur, many of those are for 
strings — muted playing, pizzicato, staccato, and col legno. 
The most important aspect about the orchestration of this 
symphony is the thin and transparent texture in the first 
and second movements as opposed to the dense texture used in 
the last movement. The thin texture in the first two move- 
ments is due to rare doubling, small instrumentation (cham- 
ber orchestra) , and incomplete chord structure. The thick 
texture in the last movement is caused by an extensive use 
of polychords, polytonality , and clusters. Although the 



93 

instrumentation of this symphony calls for an expanded per- 
cussion section, a majority of the instruments are not used 
until the second and third movements. 

The First Symphony is definitely in a neoclassical 
style with regard to formal design and titles; however, the 
harmony and rhythm of the symphony tend to be more in the 
twentieth-century tradition. Thus, Copland is able to com- 
bine old and new elements, together, for a very interesting 
composition. 



CHAPTER V 

SECOND (SHORT) SYMPHONY 



The Second Symphony , nicknamed the Short Symphony , was 
completed in 1933, and dedicated to Carlos Chavez. It pro- 
bably received the title "Short Symphony" because it is only 
fifteen minutes in length. The symphony was first performed 
in Mexico City on November 23, 1934, by the Sinfonica de 
Mexico under the direction of Chavez. Smith says, "because 
of the difficulty for both performers and listeners, the 
Short Symphony remained unheard at home as an orchestral 
work until Stokowski performed it in an NBC premiere on 
January 9, 1944. In 1937, Copland arranged the Short 
Symphony for a sextet. The sextet included string quartet, 
clarinet, and piano. The sextet version is more often 
performed. Copland says: 



I've always thought that the Short Sym- 
phony was one of the best things I ever wrote. 
And it has never caught on, for reasons not 
quite clear to me. It was technically rhyth- 
mically difficult when I wrote it, but I don't 
think nowadays it would cause any problem. 
Pieces sort of have their own fate, you know. 



Julia Smith, Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribution 
to American Music (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 
Inc. , 1955) , p. 150. 



99 



100 



You can't always predict just what's going 
to happen to them. 



The Short Symphony , to this day, remains unperformed by many 
major orchestras. 

First Movement 

The tonal centers of the Short Symphony are very 
ambiguous. For example, the opening motive indicates a D 
major or D minor tonality along with implications of poly- 
harmony. The tonal levels of this movement, however, do 
show a distinct mediant and submediant relationship. The 
first movement follows the sonata-allegro design. The tonal 
levels of this movement are shown below. 



1st Theme 



(Trans. ) 



2nd Theme 



(Dev.) 



1st Theme 



G 

Meas. 1 



(13) 



E 
43 



(98) 



B-flat 
112 



(Trans.) 



(126) 



2nd Theme 



D 
138 



Coda 



G 

155 



JTrans^) 
(168) 



Figure 5.1. Tonal levels of the First Movement 



Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in an interview 
with him by John Calloway, October 22, 1981, a production of 
WWTW/Chicago, presented by the Public Broadcasting Service. 



101 

The first movement of the symphony, tempo marked J = 
144, opens with a five note motive which implies the triads 
of D major and D minor. 



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Figure 5.2. Page 1, measure 1 



Copland uses the five note motive as the melodic germ of his 
first theme, and for the first thirteen measures of the 
movement, it is heard throughout the orchestra in a variety 
of instruments. Following a brief interlude, the theme is 
heard again, but with a slight difference. The piccolo and 
piano are the first to present this theme. 



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Figure 5.3. Page 6, measure 33 

The flutes and clarinets, followed by the violins, present 
the theme in augmentation and in the new tonal center of 
B-flat. 



102 




Figure 5.4. Page 7, measures 44-47 



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Copland also uses repeated notes to expand this theme which 
is now played by the piccolo, flutes, English horn, and 
clarinets. 



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For the next thirty-four measures, this five note theme is 
played in a variety of new forms and tonal centers using 
such devices as augmentation 



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and transposition during the transition to the second theme 



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Figure 5.8. Page 11, measure 69 

The second theme begins in measure seventy-nine. In 
contrast to the first theme, the second theme is more 
dance-like in character with syncopated jazz implications. 
The new theme is played by the English horn, and has a 
countermelody in the clarinet. 



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Figure 5.9. Page 13, measures 79-85 



The second theme material is shown below in an inversion 
using the same thematic fragments in the oboe and bassoon. 



104 



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Bassoon 



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Figure 5.11. Page 15, measures 94-99 



The second theme receives a shorter treatment than the first 
theme . 

The second theme is followed by a very short develop- 
ment section of only thirteen measures (measures 99 through 
112). in this section, Copland uses devices common to the 



10 5 



fugue, particularly stretto and inversion. The stretto is 
based on the opening five note motive and can be seen in 
measures 100 through 102. 

After the brief development section, the first theme 
returns in the tonal center of B-flat and is played by the 
flutes. 




Figure 5.12. Page 17, measure 113 

The first theme undergoes a series of changes, one of which 
can be seen below in the flutes and clarinets. 



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Between measures 126 and 138, there is another transition. 
The composer uses the repeated note idea again in this 
section, as in the first section, to expand the theme. 



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Figure 5.14. Page 19, measures 126-127 

In this transitional section, there is another stretto 
that occurs using the first theme as material. The stretto 
occurs between measures 126 and 138. The stretto differs 
from the previous one in the development section in that 
this one uses the entire five note motive with repeated 
notes as thematic material. 

After the transition, the second theme returns and is 
played by the trumpets and horns in the tonal center of G. 



Horn 

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F 



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107 

The coda begins in measure 155 and is brought to a close at 
a climactic point in measure 165, when the first theme is 
played by the entire orchestra (except for the horns) in the 
tonal center of G. 



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Measures 169 through 174 serve as transitional material to 
the second movement, which begins in a B-flat tonal center. 

The movement has many hints of poly harmony. A majority 
of the polyharmony implies a dominant-tonic relationship. 
The opening motive, for instance, implies a D major/minor 
chord. In the second measure, the resolution of this chord 
to G implies that the chord on D functions as a dominant 
resolving to the G tonic, and the F-sharp in the bass, with 
the subsequent D and A, preserves the dominant implication, 
giving a polyharmony I over V. 



108 



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Figure 5.17. Page 1, measures 1-2 

In measure eighty-one, the bass line indicates an F-sharp 

pedal point over a possible A and E chord. The two perfect 

fifths (A to E and E to B) provide possible triadic 
implications. 



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Figure 5.18. Page 13, measure 81 



In measures sixty-one and sixty-two, the cello and bass 
outline the opening motive, rhythmically varied, on a G 
root. The horns, meanwhile, play a figure ending on the 
triad of C-sharp major, a tritone away from G. The implica- 
tion here is still one of polyharmony. In measure twenty- 
seven, Copland uses an implied A sonority over a D tonal 



109 

center. Once again, the leading-tone in the bass implies 
the dominant function. 



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Figure 5.19. Page 4, measure 27 

Measure 111 contains a chord of a different complexity. The 
three perfect fifths provide substantial root ambiguity. It 
is noteworthy that the chord occurs at a moment just preced- 
ing the recapitulation in measure 113. 



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Figure 5.20. Page 16, measure 111 

Although most of the chords examined have tones or triads 
that imply a certain degree of polyharmony, it is unusual to 
find complete triads or dominant-seventh chords uncompli- 
cated by added elements. Copland does, however, use these 
chords in a few instances. 



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Figure 5.21A. 
Page 10, measure 59 



Figure 5. 2 IB. 
Page 12, measure 73 



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Figure 5.21C. 
Page 11, measure 67 



Figure 5. 2 ID. 
Page 21, measures 142 
and 144 



The term inaisivo, used parenthetically after the tempo 
marking, suggests a bold rhythmic style throughout. Copland 
changes meter frequently to add rhythmic vitality to the 
movement. Through the changes of meter and syncopation, the 
composer often shifts the accents to the upbeat or subsidi- 
ary beat. In measures 107 and 108, for example, there is a 
shift in accented beats. 



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Figure 5.22. Page 16, measures 107-108 



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The use of augmentation to expand the duration of note 
values is found frequently throughout this movement. The 
figure below shows the rhythm of the first theme and its 
augmentation . 



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Figure 5.23. Page 1, measure 1 



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Figure 5.24. Page 7, measures 44-45 



The most noticeable rhythmic element prevalent throughout 
the movement is syncopation. The rhythm of the second theme 
is syncopated, giving the listener a jazz-like impression 
through its displaced accents. 



112 



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Figure 5.25. Page 15, measures 94-99 

Another example of syncopated rhythm is found in measure 
eleven. 



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Figure 5.26. Page 3, measure 11 

The use of meter changes also adds to the rhythmic instabil- 
ity. In some cases, the meter changes are very frequent. 
Frequent meter changes can be observed in measures 15 



113 

through 169, where the meter changes thirteen times in a 
span of nineteen measures, displacing the expected regu- 
larity of emphasis. 

4 3 4 5 6 5 9 6 5 6+2 6 5 3 
4 — > 4~ "4— "8— "8— "8— > 8~" > 8~ > S~ * 8 ~ > 8~- > 8~ > 4 

Figure 5.26. Page 3, measure 11 

In measures 113 through 126, there are ten meter changes 
during a span of fourteen measures. 



4 2 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 5 

4 4 8 4 8 4 4 8 4 4 8 > 4 



Figure 5.28. Pages 17-19, measures 113-126 

Copland's longest periods of stability in any time signa- 
tures are outlined below. 



MM. 84- 98 15 measures 3/4 
MM. 102-112 11 measures 3/4 
MM. 135-144 10 measures 4/4 



The composer uses duple, triple, compound duple, compound 
triple, and quintuple meter signatures in this movement. 
The originality and freshness of the rhythm in the first 
movement can be attributed to the use of syncopation and 
frequent changes of meter. 



114 

An aspect of the music that demands analytical atten- 
tion is Copland's economy of means in creating the trans- 
parency of texture. Despite the use of such minimum amount 
of material, for example, incomplete chords, rare doubling 
except for emphasis or color, and few tutti sections, 
Copland is still able to achieve a great variety of or- 
chestral sonority. The next two musical examples demon- 
strate Copland's rare skill for achieving a striking effect 
with the fewest possible notes contained within a chord 
structure. 



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Figure 5.29. Pages 21-22, measures 145-141 



The climactic point in the composition is written in oct- 
aves. By using these octaves, Copland achieves an "open- 
ness" or "transparent" texture, as well as a direct tonal 
centering. 



115 




Figure 5.30. Pages 25-26, measures 165-168 



The clear and well-defined texture achieved by Copland in 
this movement can be attributed to his ability to write 
soloistically for all the instruments and a general lack of 
harmonic "padding" which is unnecessary for his basic 
musical ideas. 

The composer does vary the instrumental color on 
occasion. There is the use of pizzicato effects in the 
strings (measures 115 through 124) , and muted passages for 
strings (measures eighty and eighty-three) . The strings are 
also required to produce harmonics which can be seen in 
measures ninety-one and ninety-two. The composer also uses 
the col legno effect for strings in measures eighty through 
eighty-three. in one instance, the composer has used as 
many as three of these effects simultaneously. The idea can 
be seen in measure eighty, where Copland uses muted playing 
in the first violins, pizzicato playing in the second vio- 
lins, and the con legno effect, also in the second violins 



116 

and cello. Another device used for color is the cuivv& 
effect in the horns, v/here it is commonly found. The cuivr& 
effect can be seen in measures six and seven. Muted playing 
for horns can be seen in measures twenty-three and twenty- 
four, and muted playing for trumpets can be seen in measures 
128 through 132. Finally, there is the use of the glissando 
in measures 170 and 173. 

The instrumentation of the Short Symphony is illu- 
strated below. 



Piccolo 
2 Flutes (Fl. I doubling Fl. in G) 
2 Oboes 

Heckeiphone (doubling Cor Anglasis) 
2 Clarinets in B-flat 
2 Bassoons 

Double Bassoon 
4 Horns in F 
2 Trumpets in C 

Piano 

Strings 



Since the instrumentation calls for strings, woodwinds, and 
brasses in pairs, the symphony closely resembles the classi- 
cal instrumentation of the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart. 
In effect, a neoclassic orchestra is used for the most part. 
No percussion instruments are used in this symphony. How- 
ever, the piano is treated in a percussive manner. The 
English horn, piccolo, bassoon, heckeiphone, and piano are 
not part of classical instrumentation. 



117 

Second Movement 

The second movement of the Second Symphony is only 
ninety-five measures in length. There is an initial tempo 
marking of & = 44, a substantially slower tempo than that 
of the first movement. The second movement is built around 
two contrasting themes. The tonals levels of this movement 
revolve around F and B-flat. The second theme's tonal 
center is a perfect fifth away from that of the first theme. 
The form of this movement resembles that of the arch design. 
The tonal levels of the movement are diagrammed below. 



1st Theme 2nd Theme 



(Trans. ) 



B-flat F 

Meas. 175 205 (234) 



2nd Theme 1st Theme 



(Trans.) 



F B-flat 

238 254 (264) 



Figure 5.31. Tonal levels of the Second Movement 

The first theme is comprised of a descending tetra- 
chord. The intervals are half step, whole step, and whole 
step. The theme is first played by the flute in G. 



118 



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Figure 5.32. Page 27, measures 175-176 

The second time that the theme is heard, it is played by the 
violas. 



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5 



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7T 



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Figure 5.33. Page 27, measures 179-181 

There are various treatments of half and whole step inter- 
vals beginning at the piu mosso ( S - 52) in measure 187. 
The first two measures of the violin and viola part at the 
piu mosso, 



Violin 



Cello 



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Figure 5.34. Page 27, measures 187-188 



and the horn part, 



119 




Figure 5.35. Page 28, measures 190-192 



show how Copland treats the opening idea to extend the 
theme. In measures 194 and 195, the first theme material is 
used in a stretto. Measures 219 and 200 mark the last time 
that the first theme is heard in counterpoint with its 
inversion, and is played by the English horn, first horn, 
and second horn. The section is brought to a close in 
measures 203 and 204, after the phrase extension and its 
inversion are played by the second horn. 

The second section begins in measure 205, but the 
second theme is not played until 208. Measures 205 through 
207 establish an F tonal center and set a new, slightly 
faster tempo. Although the new tempo is only slightly 
faster than the first, it employs shorter note values and 
is, therefore, more* dance-like in character. 



120 




Figure 5.36. Page 30, measures 208-211 



In measure 219, the second theme is used in canonic imita- 
tion. The imitation occurs between the second flute, first 
oboe, and first bassoon in measures 219 through 2 23. The 
dotted-eighth and sixteenth note rhythm which is derived 
from the second theme is used throughout this section, 
including accompanying figures. Measures 234 through 23 7 
consist of both first and second themes in counterpoint. 
These four measures serve to separate the two statements of 
the second theme, and form an apex in the totally symmetri- 
cal structure of the movement. The first theme material is 
played by the trumpet, while a rhythm pattern closely 
related to the second theme is played by the viola and 
cello. 



121 



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Figure 5.37. Page 32, measures 234-237 



The second theme returns in measure 238. Imitative treat- 
ment of the second theme material occurs in measures 24 2 
through 244. The second theme comes to a close in measure 
253, and the first theme returns in measure 254. The first 
theme material is used in a stretto during measures 25 4 
through 2 59. The movement ends in measure 2 64, and the 
remaining five bars (265 through 269) serve as transitional 
material to the third movement. 

Copland gives the impression that, with regard to 
harmony, he is writing more horizontally than vertically. 
This is evident by the persistent use of stretto, and an 
overall use of contrapuntal lines moving independently. The 



122 

first theme implies a B-flat tonal center, whereas the 
second theme enters in an F tonal center. 

The rhythm of the second movement is somewhat conserva- 
tive as compared with the first movement. The meters used 
in this movement are chiefly duple and triple. As phrase 
extensions, 3/4 and 5/4 measures occur occasionally. 
Copland remains in the 2/2 (all breve) meter longer without 
changing than he does any other meter. This occurrence can 
be observed in measures 254 through 264. Copland not only 
uses meter changes to vary the rhythm, but he also uses 
syncopation. The first example of syncopation can be seen 
in measures 17 9 through 181 using the first theme as 
material. 



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p i m r E f%f 



Figure 5.38. Page 27, measures 179-181 



The next example of syncopation occurs in the second theme, 



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Figure 5.39. Page 30, measures 208-211 



123 

The rhythmic scheme of the second violin, viola, cello, and 
double bass parts is also syncopated in measures 208 through 
211. 



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Figure 5.40. Page 30, measures 208-211 

The longest and most pronounced example of syncopation 
occurs between the cello and double bass in measures 2 48 
through 253 . 



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Figure 5.41. Page 34, measures 248-253 

There is also another distinct syncopation in the horns 
between measures 260 and 263. In measures 236, Copland 
utilizes a rhythmic pattern that has not been used before in 
this symphony. The pattern suggests that four notes should 
be played during a span of three counts, and is used only 
for effect of a ritard. 



124 



Figure 5.42. Page 32, measure 236 

The thin texture that was prevalent in the first move- 
ment persists in this movement. Also included in Copland's 
orchestral color are such effects as trills in the clarinets 
and flutes (measures 187 through 196), muted horns (measures 
206 and 216 through 219) , and muted trumpets (measures 234 
through 237) . 

Third Movement 

The third movement does not adhere strictly to any 
classic formal design. in her book on Aaron Copland, Julia 
Smith states that this movement employs a cyclic principle 
of design. 3 The cyclic principle is defined as one in which 
related thematic material is used in all or in some of the 
movements. 4 The formal design of this movement resembles 
that of the sonata-allegro idea. The tonal levels of this 
movement are outlined below. 



Smith, p. 152. 
4 
rflB , hr .J llU &pel, Harvard Dictionary of Music (2nd ed. ; 
Cambridge Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard 
University Press, 1972), p. 217. 



125 
1st Theme 2nd Theme 



(Dey.) 



D-flat F 

Meas. 270 292 



(325) 



1st Theme 2nd Theme 



(Trans.) 



D-flat A- flat 

387 404 



Coda 



(425) 



477 



Figure 5.43. Tonal levels of the Third Movement 

The first and second tonal centers, although often vague, 
had a mediant relationship. The first time the two themes 
appear, the first theme has a D-flat center (measure 279), 
and the second theme has an F center (measure 292). The 
second time they appear, the first theme has a D-flat center 
(measure 387), and the second theme has an A-flat center 
(measure 4 04) . 

The first section of this movement opens with a short 
motive. The motive is first played by the bass clarinet. 






126 




Figure 5.44. Page 37, measures 272-273 

When the motive is heard in conjunction with the pizzicato 
notes in measure 271, it outlines the triad D-flat, F, A- 
flat. From measures 280 through 284, the theme is heard in 
a variety of instrumental colors, some outlining chords, 
whereas others do not. The motive is heard two final times 
before a small climax is reached in measure 287. The bas- 
soon plays the motive the first time followed by the horns. 



Bassoon 



Horn 




Figure 5.45. Page 40, measures 286-287 



In measures 291 and 2 92, Copland outlines a motive that will 
mature into his second theme. 






127 



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42., 



Figure 5.46. Page 41, measures 291-2 92 

It is interesting to note that the anacrusis to the second 
theme outlines the triad D-flat, F-flat, and A- flat. The 
use of syncopation in the theme sharply contrasts it with 
the first theme. The theme is heard again in measures 3 03 
through 306 in the oboe with added tones. 



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Figure 5.47. Pages 43-44, measures 303-306 

The theme reaches its full maturity in measure 306 as the 
violins play it in its entirety. 



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Figure 5.48. Pages 44-45, measures 3 06-312 



128 

The second theme comes to a close in measure 3 24, and the 
development section begins in measure 325. 

The return of the first theme is in measure 3 87. It 
also marks the return of the ostinato rhythm which accom- 
panied it the first time. Although the intervals have been 
changed, the central melodic idea of the theme remains the 
same. 



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Figure 5.49. Page 54, measures 390-391 

The second theme returns in measure 404 continuing to bear 
the syncopated jazz rhythm which was so characteristic of it 
the first time it appeared. 




Figure 5.50. Page 55, measures 403-405 

Between measures 403 and 424, the second theme is passed 
around among different instruments to give an effect of a 
stretto. 



129 

There is a transitional section beginning in measure 425. 
Measure 454 marks the playing of the second theme by the 
horns. The second theme is sounded throughout the orchestra 
until measure 476. The coda begins in measure 477 when the 
first theme from the first movement of the symphony returns, 
thus indicating the cyclic principle of formal design. The 
theme is played in augmentation by the flute and piccolo. 



Piccolo 



S2 



Flute 
in G 



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Figure 5.51. Page 64, measures 477-478 

In measures 487 through 489, the theme is played again, but 
in a slightly different rhythm by the violins, viola, and 
horns. 




Figure 5.52. Pages 64-65, measures 487-4 



89 



130 

The movement continues to the end with fragmentations from 
the first theme of the first movement sounding in the piano, 
clarinet, and piccolo until the orchestra enters and 
cadences in an F tonal center in measure 506. 

The harmonic implications of this movement lends itself 
to polytonal analysis. At the beginning of this movement, 
Copland outlines a series of major triads. 



Bassoon I 




Bass 
Clarinet 



Figure 5.53A. Page 37, measure 27 3 



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Figure 5.53B. Page 37, measure 27 3 



Clarinet 




Figure 5.53C. Page 37, measure 27 5 



131 

The A major and D-flat major triads play an important role 
in determining the tonal centers of the first theme. In 
measure 279, Copland uses an implied A major triad without 
the A, and the D-flat major triad without the A-flat as 
pedal points. The two tonal centers A and D-flat suggest 
that the harmonic background at this point is polytonal. 
The ostinato rhythm in the second violins, and the chord 
structure in the first violins, serve further to confirm the 
polytonality. In measure 283, the tonal centers of F-sharp 
and B-flat are used. This changes in the second half of 
measure 284 to a B-flat and G-flat tonal center. The F- 
sharp, A-sharp, and C-sharp is the enharmonic equivalent of 
G-flat, B-flat, and D-flat. In essence, two tonal centers, 
B-flat and G-flat, occur simultaneously. 



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Figure 5.54. Page 39., measures 283-2 



84 



The second half of measure 285 also brings about a change in 
harmony. The D-flat tonal center remains in the upper 
voices, whereas the lower voice tonal center has changed to 
A-flat. Copland uses a series of chords in measures 287 
through 288, which imply polyharmony. 



132 



M 



1 



A 



W- 



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Figure 5.55. Page 40, measures 2 87-2 88 

The first chord implies an A major and an E major triad; the 
second, C-sharp major and a C-sharp minor triad; and the 
third, an A major and D-flat major triad. There is a 
rhythmic ostinato in measures 371 through 377 that uses a 
polychord. The polychord consists of a B-fiat major and 
D-sharp diminished triad. 



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Figure 5.56. Page 52, measure 371 

The rhythmic activity of this movement is much like the 
first movement in that there are ostinatos, frequent changes 
of meter, and syncopated rhythm patterns. Beginning in 
measure 279, there is an ostinato pattern occurring in the 
second violins which continues through various instruments 
until measure 287. 



133 






■*■*■ 



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Figure 5.57. Page 38, measures 279-2 80 

The element of syncopation is very evident in the statement 
of the second theme. 




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Figure 5.58. Page 45, measures 315-318 

The alternating meter changes of 7/8 and 5/8, beginning in 
measure 325, give an unstable rhythmic pulse. The variety 
achieved through alternation of meters adds a "freshness" to 
the rhythmic scheme. Within the 5/8 and 7/8 pattern, 
Copland has divided the measures to aid in counting. 



134 



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Figure 5.59. Page 46, measures 326-327 

Copland also divides the 6+2/8 meter in measure 383, and the 
5/4 meter in measure 292. In measures 366 through 368, the 
composer has drawn the sixteenth-note beams across the bar 
line to keep the strong rhythmic pulse from occurring at the 
bar line. The effect has also been reinforced by the use of 
the slur markings to indicate the phrasing. 



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Figure 5.60. Pages 50-51, measures 366-369 

Augmentation is used in a treatment of the first theme 
material from the first movement during measures 477 and 
478. The composer also uses several meter signatures during 
this movement. The use of such a number of meter signa- 
tures and the frequency of the changes again show Copland's 
concern with providing variety to the element of rhythm. 



135 

The orchestration of this movement provides a more 
frequent use of the entire orchestra than any of the previ- 
ous movements. In his orchestration, the composer utilizes 
a variety of orchestral effects for color. One such effect 
is the muted playing for trumpets in measures 275 through 
2 77. The muted effect can be seen in the violins in mea- 
sures 279 through 285. The stopped horn effect is used in 
measures 305 through 310. The use of ool legno playing is 
illustrated in the violins and violas in measures 3 25 
through 330. The effect of pizzicato playing can be ob- 
served in the second violins in measures 331 through 3 33. 
The composer also uses muted horns in measures 343 through 
361. In measures 489 through 495, the cellos are instructed 
to produce harmonics on their instruments. 



Cello 5± 



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Figure 5.61. Page 65, measures 489-49 2 



Copland also uses another effect in the strings known as 
jet 6. 



136 



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Pizz. Jete 



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aroo 



aroo 



Figure 5.62. Page 47, measure 332 

Effects like this one and others found in the composition 
add to the overall variety of tone colors found throughout 
this movement. 



General Observations 

The tonal centers of the movements of the Short Sym- 
phony are mostly consistent and well defined, except for the 
last movement in which the centers vary because of the 
strong implications of polytonality. The chord structure 
throughout the three movements, however, does remain con- 
sistent. The composer uses many harmonies that imply poly- 
chords. In some cases, the chordal structure is built 
around a tonic-dominant relationship. It is not uncommon, 
for example, to find a G, B, D/F-sharp chord. This chord 
structure implies a D tonal center and a G tonal center. 
With the leading tone in the bass, the chord gives strong 
indications of polyharmony in which a tonic-dominant 



137 

(I over V) relationship exists. There is also an ambiguity 
between major and minor keys. The opening motive of the 
first movement creates an ambiguity between D major and D 
minor. There are also numerous other examples of ambiguity 
throughout the work. In the last movement, Copland uses a 
polytonal structure with the two tonal centers a mediant 
relationship apart. As shown through the analysis, the 
composer, in rare instances, does use triads and major-minor 
seventh chords. 

Copland has utilized short fragments or motives to 
construct his themes. These short themes or motives are 
used in the first themes of each movement, whereas the 
longer, syncopated or dance-like themes are associated with 
the second themes. He uses augmentation, diminution, 
repeated tones, and transposition in the treatment of the 
themes. The most common device employed for thematic 
development is stretto. Copland uses stretto to imitate his 
themes or motives in close succession. The development 
sections are very short, especially in the first and second 
movements. The developmental sections in the third movement 
are longer than the ones in the first and second movements. 
The symphony has only three movements. Most classic sym- 
phonies have four movements. The first movement closely 
resembles the sonata-allegro design. The movement has two 
contrasting themes, a development section, a return of the 



138 

two themes, and a coda. The mediant relationship which is 
present in the first movement can be traced back to the 
works of Beethoven where he departed from classical period 
key relationships. The second movement follows an ABBA or 
arch design rather than the normal ABA format. The tonal 
centers in this movement have a tonic-dominant relationship. 
The last movement is also conventional in regard to form. 
There are two themes, a development section, a return of the 
two themes, a transitional section, and a coda. Copland 
links all of the movements together through the use of 
transitional material between movements. Through the use of 
the transition material between movements, the composer is 
able to join the entire fifteen-minute symphony, together, 
without a break. In the coda of the last movement, the 
first theme from the first movement returns. The return of 
the first theme in such a case shows Copland's treatment of 
the theme according to the cyclic principle of musical form. 
According to the cyclic principle, thematic material is used 
in some or all of the movements of a composition as a 
unifying factor. It is also important to note that Copland 
uses first theme material in the second movement. The 
cyclic principle has been used by such composers as Berloiz, 
Franck, Vincent d'Indy, Saint-Saens , Faure, Schumann, and 
Dukas. 



139 



The first and third movements in the symphony exhibit 
many meter changes. These changes contribute to the irregu- 
larity of metric pulsation. The composer also uses synco- 
pated rhythms, some of which have jazz implications. The 
second movement remains conservative in the variety of 
meters used; However, the freedom achieved by the rhythm 
throughout this symphony can be a direct result of the meter 
changes, and syncopated rhythmic figures. 

The Short Symphony is basically a work in the neo- 
classic style in regard to instrumentation and formal 
design. Copland's instrumentation calls for pairs of wind 
and brass instruments. The pairing of instruments resembles 
the instrumentation of the classical orchestras of Haydn and 
Mozart. The piccolo, bass clarinet, flute in G, and double 
bassoon, were not, however, part of classical instrumenta- 
tion. Using only horns and trumpets from the brass section 
also suggests that the work is of the neoclassic style. The 
most remarkable observation about this symphony is that it 
uses no percussion, except for the piano, which in effect is 
used as a percussive instrument. When Copland was asked why 
he did not use any percussion, he answered in amazement, "I 
didn't! Not one bang on anything?" There was then a long 
pause, after which he remarked, "That's very odd." 5 



5 
Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



140 

The transparent texture achieved by Copland in his 
writing is due to such tendencies as incomplete chords, rare 
doubling except for emphasis or color, few tutti sections, 
and an overall soloistic writing style for each instrument. 
The composer uses several instrumental effects to add a 
variety of colors to the symphony. One of the most pro- 
nounced examples of color begins in measure eighty. Here, 
the composer uses three different effects simultaneously. 
Copland uses muted playing in the first violins, pizzicato 
playing in the second violins, and the col legno effect, 
also in the second violins and cello. Another example can 
be seen beginning in measure 325 in the string section. 
During these measures, Copland uses two different effects 
together — the col legno and pizzicato. The Second Symphony 
also calls for effects, such cuivve, muted passages for both 
strings and brass, the jete effect for strings, harmonics 
for strings, and finally, the use of glissando s in the 
strings. 

Copland has succeeded in writing a symphony in the 
neoclassical style with regard to formal design and instru- 
mentation. He uses no percussion in this composition, 
except for the few instances in which the piano is used as a 
percussive instrument. Nevertheless, the work is definitely 
in a twentieth-century style with regard to its harmony 
rhythm, and melody. 



CHAPTER VI 

THIRD SYMPHONY 

Aaron Copland's Third Symphony, completed in 1946, is 
the last of his symphonies. The Third Symphony was com- 
missioned by the Koussevitzky Music Foundation. The com- 
position, almost forty minutes in duration, was first 
performed by the Boston Symphony, in Boston, on October 18 
and 19, 1946, under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky. 
The symphony is dedicated to the memory of Copland's dear 
friend, Natalie Koussevitzky. During the 1946-47 season, 
the work was awarded the New York Music Critics' Circle 
Prize for the best orchestral work by an American . composer . 
The Third Symphony is probably best known for its quotation 
of one of Copland's earlier works, Fanfare for the Common 
Man, which appears in the fourth movement. The first 
noticeable difference in this symphony is that the work 
contains four movements as opposed to the other three 
symphonies, which contain three movements each. 

First Movement 

The tonal center of E is implied at the beginning of 
the movement. The form of the movement resembles that of 



141 



142 



the arch design. The tonal levels of thi 
outlined below. 



1st Theme 



E 
Meas. 1 



2nd Theme 



s movement a re 



3rd Theme 



A 
36 



D 
54 



Coda 



16 



1st Theme 



E 
129 



Figure 6.1. Tonal levels of the First 



Movement 



The movement, tempo marked Motto moderato (J =52), 
opens with a slow lyrical melody. The melody, which is the 
first theme, is played by the flute and violins. 



T?aken from the program notes, written by Aaron 
Copland, on the first performance of the Third Symphony, 
which took place on October 18, 1946, by the Boston Symphony 
Orchestra, under the direction of Serge Koussevitzky 



143 



3 




1 



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t a. 



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fit-, f ty 



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Figure 6.2. Pages 1-2, measures 1-8 

There are various treatments of this theme by the violins 
and viola in measures nine through fifteen, and the violins, 
oboes, and clarinets in measures nineteen through thirty. 
In measures thirty-one through thirty-four, there is a brief 
climax before the second theme enters in an A tonal center. 
The second theme enters in measure thirty-six and is played 
by the viola, oboe, and English horn until measure forty- 
two, where its statement is completed by the violins. 



144 



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Figure 6.3. Pages 5-6, measures 36-44 

An E-flat tonal center is indicated beginning in measure 
forty-five, where the second theme is played by the violins. 



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Figure 6.4. Pages 7-8, measures 45-53 



145 



The third theme enters in measure fifty-four and is played 
by the trombones in the tonal center of D. The tempo 
marking at this point has changed to Piu mosso ancora ( J = 
92). 



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Figure 6.5. Page 9, measures 54-57 



There are various treatments of the third theme material in 
measures sixty-five through eighty-eight. The first and 
second themes are used in counterpoint beginning in measure 
ninety-two, along with various treatments of the third 
theme. The first section returns in measure 129, but the 
first theme does not appear until measure 133. Although the 
theme is changed through the use of augmentation and inter- 
vallic contraction, the essential character remains the 
same. 



146 



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Figure 6.6. Page 23, measures 133-144 

In the bass line in measures 137 through 144, there is a 
Phrygian scale on E which is played by the double bass and 
cello. 



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Figure 6.7. Page 23, measures 133-144 



The coda begins in measure 160, and both the first and 
second themes can be heard until the movement cadances in 
measure 179. 

Chordal harmonies, for the most part, are all but 
eliminated because of Copland's linear approach to poly- 
phony. There is an abundant use of counterpoint which can 



147 

be seen throughout the movement. The tonal centers are 
enforced by the thematic material and key signatures. 

The rhythmic content of this movement is not very 
active. The first and second themes tend to suggest a 
quiet, pastoral feeling. There is a variety of meter signa- 
tures used, but the movement remains relatively conservative 
with regard to rhythmic activity. 

The Third Symphony is scored for a large orchestra, and 
the instrumentation calls for fifteen percussion instru- 
ments. The instrumentation for the symphony is listed 
below. 



Piccolo 
3 Flutes 
2 Oboes 

English Horn 

Clarinet in E-flat 
2 Clarinets in B-flat 

Bass Clarinet 
2 Bassoons 

Double Bassoon 



4 Horns in F 

4 Trumpets in B-flat 

3 Trombones 

Tuba 

Timpani 
* Percussion (4 players) 
2 Harps 

Celesta 

Pianoforte 



*Bass drum, Tam-tam, Cymbals, Xylophone, Glockenspiel, 
Tenor Drum, Woodblock, Snare Drum, Triangle, Slapstick, 
Ratchet, Anvil, Claves, Tubular Bells 



The orchestral effects include pizzicato playing in the 
violins (measures seventy-seven through seventy-nine) and 
ouivrt playing in the horns (measures 117 through 119) . 
Copland also uses muted playing for the trumpets in measures 
110 through 117, and muted horns in measures four through 
nine. 



14 8 
Second Moveme nt 



The second movement, tempo marked Allegro molto ( J = 
108), is built around the traditional scherzo design. There 
is a first part, trio, and repetition of the first part. 
The movement also includes an introduction and a coda. The 
tonal levels of this movement are outlined below. 



Intro. 1st Theme 



(Dev.) 



F 
Meas. 180 211 



(261) 



1st Theme Trio 



F G-sharp 



291 



336 



1st Theme 



G 
4 08 



Coda 



474 



Figure 6.8. Tonal levels of the Second Movement 

The movement opens with an introductory motive. This 
eventually evolves into the first theme material. 



149 



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Figure 6.9. Page 26, measures 130-181 

The motive can be heard in measures 180 through 201 as it is 
treated in an imitative manner between the trumpets, horns, 
strings, and trombones. Measures 202 through 210 serve as 
an interlude to the first theme, which begins in measure 
211. The first theme, which now includes the introductory 
motive, is played by the clarinet, bass clarinet, horns, and 
viola. 




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S5 



Figure 6.10. Pages 29-30, measures 211-217 



The theme continues its statement in the clarinet, E-flat 
clarinet, and oboe as follows: 



150 



35 



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Figure 6.11. Pages 30-31, measures 218-222 

In measures 222 through 225, the first theme is played by 
the clarinet and E-flat clarinet in a different form. 



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Figure 6.12. Page 31, measures 222-225 

There is another treatment of the first theme material by 
the horns in measures 225 through 229. 



|j Pf'f l f flf fe sEEEg 



n 




Figure 6.13. Pages 31-32, measures 225-2 29 



151 
Still another treatment of the thematic material can be seen 
in measures 232 through 235. The thematic treatment is 
played by the first violins. The theme reappears in its 
original form in measures 245 through 256, and is played by 
the violins and viola. The horns responds with another 
treatment of the thematic material in measures 256 through 
2 60. Measures 260 through 290 serve as the development 
section. The first theme returns in measure 291, and is 
played in augmentation by the bassoon, contrabassoon, 
trombone, and various other instruments until it reaches a 
climax at measure 313. A portion of the theme in augmenta- 
tion is shown in the following example. 



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Figure 6.14. Pages 44-45, measures 291-295 

In measures 313 through 335, the introductory and first 
theme material are played by the trumpets as this section 
comes to a close. The trio begins in measure 336, and has a 
new theme with a very lyrical quality. The new theme is 
played by the oboe in the tonal center of G-sharp. The 
meter signature has also changed to 3/4. 



152 



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25 



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M?^ nr i , ijjg 



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be 



Figure 6.15. Pages 51-52, measures 336-3 48 

There are various treatments of the new theme. The first 
treatment of the new theme is played by the violin. 



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Figure 6.16. Pages 52-53, measures 361-3 70 



153 

Another treatment of the trio theme enters in measures 3 70 
through 381 and is played by the piccolo, celesta, and 
clarinet. 



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Figure 6.17. Pages 53-54, measures 370-375 



The trio theme returns in measures 396 through 402, and is 
played by the oboe. In measures 402 through 407, a canonic 
imitation occurs between the piccolo, first violin, and 
second violin. The trio ends in measure 409, and the first 
theme returns in measures 410 through 434 in the piano. The 
theme returns in a different rhythm, but the intervallic 
relationship of this return and the original statement 
(measures 210 through 225) are exactly the same. Only a 
portion of the return, played by the piano in an elaborated 
manner, is shown in the following excerpt. 



154 




itiuiWi 



Figure 6.18. Pages 57-58, measures 410-418 



The first theme reappears in measure 459 and is played by a 
variety of instruments until measure 469. The coda begins 
in measure 4 74. During the coda, the trio theme can be 
heard in canonic imitation in measures 474 through 495 as it 
is played by various instruments throughout the orchestra. 
The second movement comes to a close in measure 521. 

The use of imitative counterpoint (canonic in this 
movement) has all but eliminated vertical harmonies in the 
movement. Nevertheless, the composer has used key signa- 
tures, coupled with diatonic themes, to give a strong 
feeling of key center. Copland also uses pedal points to 
establish a key center. An F pedal point can be observed in 
measures 211 through 216 in the cello, and measures 216 and 
217 in the violins. In measures 240 through 243, the com- 
poser uses the eighth-note figure , the two-note figure in 
the horns and bassoon, along with the melodic line, to 
provide some bases for a possible harmonic scheme. 



155 



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Figure 6.19. Page 34, measures 240-241 



The eighth-note figure, in measures 244-256, is another 
example of a pedal point used to establish a harmonic 
shceme. The celesta, in measures 369 through 381, plays a 
passage that has a C-sharp center. It is interesting to 
note that a majority of the triads in this passage are in 
second inversion. Below the chords used in the C-sharp 
center, the composer has constructed different pedal points 
to imply different harmonies. The example on the next page 
is a Schenkerian reduction of measures 370 through 375 (see 
Figure 6.20, page 156). The reduction shows the distinct 
possibility of polyharmony. In another instance in which 
chords are used, the composer colors the triads with added 
tones. These types of chords can be seen in measures 410 
through 415 in the second violin. 



156 



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15 7 

Copland uses a limited variety of meter signatures in 
the second movement. The meter signatures ivhich are used 
are as follows: C (alia breve), 3/4, 3/3, 4/4, and 2/4. 
The composer uses augmentation in some cases to lengthen the 
value of the notes, and diminution to shorten the value of 
the notes. This can be seen in measures 290 through 313, 
during the return of the first theme and in measures 313 
through 323 during the statement of the introductory motive. 

Many orchestral effects are also used in this movement. 
Muted playing for trombones can be seen in measures 182 
throuah 185. 



Con 
Sord 



m 1 1 1 






Figure 6.21. Pages 26, measures 182-185 



Muted playing for trumpets is also used. Pizzicato playing 
for strings can be seen in measures 203 through 205, and at 
various other points throughout this movement. The strings 
are also instructed to produce harmonics on their instru- 
ments. One such case can be observed in measures 277 and 
278 in the violins. 



158 



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8 y B ^ 



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Figure 6.22. Page 41, measures 277-278 

Percussion effects are also used, such as rim shots (mea- 
sures 238 and 239) , and striking the cymbal with a hard 
stick (measures 268 and 269). Beginning in measure 410, the 
composer has used two different effects in the strings 
simultaneously. The two effects are pizzicato and col legno 
playing. 

Third Movement 



The third movement begins with the tempo marking 
Andantino quasi allegretto ( J = 84). The movement is 
built around an introductory theme which has the same 
intervallic relationship as the third theme of the first 
movement and another theme in the main body of the movement, 
which is treated in three variations. After the variations, 
the introductory material returns to give the movement a 
symmetrical appearance. Copland has the following statement 
about the form of the third movement: 



159 



The third movement is freest of all in 
formal structure. Although it is built up 
sectionally, the various sections are intended 
to emerge one from the other in continuous 
flow, somewhat in the manner of a closely knit 
series of variations. The opening section, 
however, plays no role other than that of 
introducing the main body of the movement. 

The tonal levels of the third movement are outlined below, 



Intro. 
1 








1st Theme 


i 

E 
Meas. 


522 








— 1 — 

E 
586 








1st Var. 
1 


(Trans. ) 


2nd Var. 
1 




3rd Var. 
i 






1 

F 
632 


(658) 


1 — 

A 
664 

(Trans 


.) 


1 

G 

679 

Intro. 
1 










(734) 




1 

A 
740 



(TransJ _ 

(750) 

Figure 6.23. Tonal levels of the Third Movement 

The introductory theme is identical to the third theme 
of the first movement except for a rhythmic variation. The 
theme occurs first in the violin. 



2 Ibid. 



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Figure 6.24. Page 71, measures 522-527 

The second violins enter in measure 528 with another melody. 
The second melody is treated imitatively with the intro- 
ductory theme. 



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Intro. Th.i 



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m 



Second Melody 



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Figure 6.25. Page 71, measures 528-53 9 



161 

There are various treatments of the introductory theme 
between measures 543 and 585. One such treatment can be 
seen in the oboe. 



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Figure 6.26. Page 71-72, measures 555-559 

The first theme enters in measures 587 through 592 and is 
played by the flute. 



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Figure 6.27. Page 75, measures 587-592 



The violin echoes this statement in measures 593 through 
598. 



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Figure 6.28. Page 75, measures 5 93-598 

Another treatment of the first theme material is also played 
by the violin. 



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Figure 6.29. Page 76, measures 609-611 

Another treatment of the thematic material occurs in the 
oboe (measures 615 through 617) and in the violins (measures 
619 through 629) . The first variation on the theme begins 
in measure 634 in the violins. 



163 



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Figure 6.30. Page 78, measures 634-637 

The first variation is repeated in measures 638 through 641 
by the violins, and in measures 642 through 644 by the oboe. 
The second variation begins in measures 664 and is played by 
the flutes. 



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Figure 6.31. Pages 80-81, measures 664-666 

The second variation can be heard in a variety of treatments 
until measure 679. During measures 679 through 682, the 
third variation can be heard in the violins. 



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Figure 6.32. Page 84, measures 679-6 82 



164 

The third variation is treated in imitation during measures 
683 through 698. In measures 699 through 739, the third 
variation can be heard in a variety of treatments. The 
introductory material returns in the piccolo and violins in 
measures 740 through 749, and the remaining measures (7 50 
through 755) serve as transitional material to the fourth 
movement. 

Copland's abundant use of counterpoint remains preva- 
lent in this movement as it has been in the previous two 
movements. This linear approach is evident through the 
continued use of several melodic lines interacting simul- 
taneously. One example can be observed in the composer's 
use of imitation in measures 538 through 539 and measures 
683 through 698. One of the instances in which a chord is 
found in the movement can be seen in measures 586 through 
588. During these measures, Copland has outlined an E major 
triad. The rhythmic element has brought about a variety of 
meter signatures during the movement. The following signa- 
tures are used in this movement: 5/4, 3/4, 2/4, C or 4/4, 
6/8 2/4, and 6/8. In the case of the 5/4 meter, and the 6/8 
2/4 meter, the composer has subdivided the measures for the 
type of metric pulse he wants. In looking at the tempo 
markings, there is an occurrence in which the composer has 
deliberately moved gradually from a slower tempo to a faster 
tempo, and back to a slower tempo. The impression created 



165 



is one of a gradual increase in speed, then a gradual return 
to a slower speed. This idea can be seen in the diagram 



below. 



J = 84 > J = 10 4 > J = 13 8 > J = 



128 



(522) (590) (629) (642) 



J= 132 > J = 138 >J = 



128 



)- 



( 67 9) (683) w (704) 

112 > J = 76 

(723) (Rit.) (740) 



Figure 6.33. Tempo marking for the Third Movement 



Another rhythmic element involves that of syncopation. The 
syncopation, however, plays only a minor role in the element 
of rhythm. 

The orchestral effects used in the movement are similar 
to the ones used in the previous movements. Among those are 
pizzicato for strings, muted playing for brass, and produc- 
tion of harmonics for strings. Copland has also used many 
expression markings for the players, as well as the con- 
ductor. The list below shows these markings. 

Toco espress Esprees, grazioso 

Animando Dolce 

Soave Soave, grazioso 

Non legato Energico 

Stringendo Marc, vigoroso 

Tenuto Ritmico e pesante 

Con grazia Con intensity 

Hold-Back Moving forward 



166 

Fourth Movement 

The fourth movement is longer than any of the previous 
movements. The introduction to the movement is based on the 
Fanfare for the Common Man which Copland composed in 1942. 
The movement closely resembles the sonata-allegro format 
except for one interesting phenomenon. The second theme is 
found embedded in the development section rather than in its 
traditional place. The recapitulation uses material from 
the first two themes, along with material from the introduc- 
tion, and the first and second themes from the first move- 
ment of the symphony. The tonal levels are also not 
consistent with the traditional sonata-allegro design. The 
composer makes the following statements about the fourth 
movement : 



It is the longest movement of the symphony, 
and closest in structure to the customary sonata- 
allegro form. The fanfare serves as preparation 
for the main body of the movement which follows. 
The components of the usual form are there: a 
first theme in animated sixteenth-note motion; 
a second theme — broader and more song-like in 
character; a full-blown development and a re- 
fashioned return to the earlier material of 
the movement, leading to a peroration. One 
curious feature of the movement consists in 
the fact that the second theme is to be found 
embedded in the development section instead 
of being in its customary place. The develop- 
ment, as such, concerns itself with the fan- 
fare and first theme fragments. 



2 Ibid. 



167 



The tonal levels of this movement are outlined below. 



Intro. (Fanfare) 



Meas. 756 



1st Theme 



D 

800 



(Dev.) 



(904) 





2nd Theme 






i 
i 
i 


1st Theme 
Fanfare 

1 


G 
929 


1st Theme 
1st Mvt. 


987 

2nd Theme 
1st Mvt. 
1 


Coda 

i 


i 

D-flat 
1046 




G 

1070 


r 

D 
1083 


1 

1105 



Figure 6.34. Tonal levels of the Fourth Movement 

The introduction, marked Motto deliberato, is based 
upon material from the fanfare. The flutes and clarinets, 
in measures 756 through 765, are the first to present the 
fanfare. Beginning in measure 766, the fanfare, marked 
forte, is played by the horns, trumpets, and percussion. 
The introduction ends in measure 7 99, and the first theme 
begins in measure 800. The first theme has a new tempo 



168 

marking of Doppio movimento (Allegro risoluto) ( J =Jprec.) 
( J = 112) . The theme consists primarily of sixteenth 
notes and is played by the oboe. 




Figure 6.35. Page 97, measures 8 00-8 02 

The first theme is taken through a variety of treatments 
before it is heard again. Beginning in measure 817, the 
first theme is played by the violins. 




Figure 6.36. Page 99, measures 817-8 20 



169 

From measure 800 to measure 903, Copland has utilized the 
sixteenth-note figure continuously throughout the orchestra. 
Arthur Berger states, "Strings zoom up and down, gidding on 
the heights, and with wide spacing at times that seem to pit 
aerial stunts against contrasted activity on the ground." 
The development section begins in measure 904 and closes in 
measure 1045. The material in the development section is 
based upon the introductory fanfare and the first theme. 
During the development section, the second theme enters. 
The second theme is played by the strings beginning in 
measure 9 29. 



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Figure 6.37. Pages 118-119, measures 929-932 

The second theme undergoes a variety of different 
treatments before the development section comes to a close. 
The treatment below shows the use of intervallic expansion. 



Arthur Berger, "The Third Symphony of Aaron Copland," 
Tempo, IX (Autumn, 1948), p. 27. 



170 



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Figure 6.38. Page 122, measures 953-956 

The development section ends in measure 1045, and the 
recapitulation begins in measure 1046. The first theme 
returns, and is played by the oboe in measure 1046. Materi- 
al from the introduction (fanfare) returns in measure 1056, 
and is played, simultaneously, with the first theme. The 
fanfare material is played first by the bassoons in measures 
1056 through 1063. 



'"l>iA v ll! 



r— 7 



P 



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Figure 6.39. Pages 137-138, measures 1056-1063 



171 



The fanfare material can be heard again in measures 106 5 
through 1070. During this statement, the material is played 
by the horns . 




Figure 6.40. Pages 139-140, measures 1065-1070 

The first theme from the first movement appears in measures 
1070 through 1082 and is played by the violins. 



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Figure 6.41. Pages 140-144, measures 1070-1082 



172 

Beginning in measure 1083, second theme material from the 
first movement is played by the horns and trombones. 




Figure 6.42. Pages 144-145, measures 1083-1086 

Fanfare material is played by the trumpets and horns begin- 
ning measure 1091, and ending in measure 1104. The coda 
starts at measure 1105, and the movement comes to a close in 
measure 1129. There are several instances within this 
movement where Copland uses melodic material or a motive in 
an imitative manner. The material which is used is treated 
in a fugato fashion. Two examples of the fugato can be seen 
in measures 809 through 812, and measures 1017 through 1036. 
The fugato is based on the melodic germ below. 




Figure 6.43. 



173 

Copland begins the movement by using an A-flat pedal point 
to establish the tonal center in measures 756 through 764. 
The chord in measures 766 suggests a feeling of polyharmony. 
There is the implication of a C major triad, along with an A 
minor triad. 



L 



g£ 



2 






Figure 6.44. Page 94, measure 766 

The intervals of a fifth and fourth give an "empty" quality 
that is associated with Copland's music. The idea can also 
be seen in measure 8 00, where Copland uses the interval of a 
perfect fifth to establish a harmonic background. A 
majority of the material throughout the fourth movement 
suggests Copland's attention to the melodic line. This is 
evident through his continued use of counterpoint. Copland 
also uses polychords. Some of the polychords are based on 
triads that have an interval of a second apart. The chord 
structure in measure 858 suggests a polychord of P /major/6? 
major triad. In measure 1115, a triad built on D and an E 



? 



174 



triad are suggested. In some cases, ordinary triads are 
used as a harmonic base. Such triads can be seen in the 
harmonization of the second theme in measures 933 through 



934. 






is 



1 



i 



Figure 6.45. Page 119, measures 933-934 

The same type of triadic harmonies can be seen in measures 
947 through 9 49. Perhaps the most interesting chord struc- 
ture in the entire movement occurs in measure 1037. The 
composer has used a cluster of tones over a C tonal center. 
The cluster of tones, along with the flutter tonguing 
effect, serve to create a high degree of tension at a 
climactic point in the movement. 

The composer has not used a variety of rhythms in the 
movement. The running sixteenth-note figure creates a very 
lively rhythmic feel throughout the first and third sections 
of the movement. The most important rhythmic device is that 
of syncopation. The syncopated figure below closely resem- 
bles that of a Latin American dance rhythm. 



175 



/*f,,f>,* 



Figure 6.46. Page 98, measures 809-810 

Another example of syncopation can be seen in measures 8 45 
through 847. 



> • > > > 



ai 



^ 



> 



| - | [ ■■ / ! '^ ^ ^ 



±* 



3= 



Figure 6.47. Page 103, measures 845-847 

Copland has used two different meter signatures to 
achieve the syncopated pulsation in the second theme. 



k 



a a a 



g^si 



t 



*f 



Hi 



>-* 




Figure 6.48. Pages 118-119, measures 929-932 

Most of the instrumental effects used are the same 
effects used in the previous three movements. New effects 
can be found in the percussion section, such as rim shots, 



176 

the use of wooden sticks on the timpani, and metal sticks on 
the suspended cymbal. The most noticeable effect, used by 
Copland, is the flutter tonguing for woodwinds and brass in 
measure 1037. With regard to orchestration, the instru- 
mental lines are treated soloistically , except for doubling, 
which is used for emphasis or color. 

General Observations 

The Third Symphony is the first of the four symphonies 
to use key signatures. The key signatures are relevant in 
the sense that they help to establish tonal centers or a 
feeling of centralization. The tonal centers, however, are 
not consistent with the traditional form of tonic-dominant 
or tonic-mediant relationship. The Third Symphony has the 
traditional four movements, and is the only four-movement 
symphony written by Copland. In regard to the form of each 
movement, the first movement is an arch; the second movement 
follows the soherzo form; the third movement resembles that 
of theme and variation; and the fourth movement adheres to 
the sonata-allegro format. The second, third and fourth 
movements open with introductory material. Within the 
symphony, thematic material from the first movement some- 
times appears in other movements. The first theme of the 
first movement, for instance, appears in the last movement 
of the symphony, while the third theme from the first 
movement can be found in the introduction to the third 



177 

movement. The use of thematic material from a previous 
movement in other movements (particularly the last move- 
ment) of the symphony suggests that the overall symphony is 
cyclic in form. 

The melodies in this symphony are relatively diatonic 
with the exception of a few accidentals. The melodies often 
extend at least an octave or beyond. The use of diminution 
and augmentation in the treatment of thematic materials is 
also used in the symphony. The composer uses other melodic 
devices (common to the fugue) , such as imitation. When a 
theme is repeated, the composer is careful to change the 
melody, either rhythmically or intervallically , to keep the 
thematic material for becoming tiresome. Copland also 
quotes material from one of his earlier compositions in the 
last movement. 

There is abundant use of counterpoint throughout this 
movement. Copland's linear approach is reinforced through 
the use of imitation, and the interacting of several melodic 
lines simultaneously. The chordal structure, in some cases, 
is triadic. Two melodies, in particular the second theme of 
the fourth movement and the trio melody in the second move- 
ment, are harmonized with traditional triadic harmonies. In 
other cases, polychords are built on the interval of a 
second apart. It is not uncommon to find a D triad and an E 



178 



triad sounding simultaneously. There are also many in- 
stances in which the composer has used intervals of a per- 
fect fifth as the basis for his harmonic scheme. In doing 
so, Copland has created an ambiguity with respect to chord 
quality, and an "open" sound quality that has become synony- 
mous with his music. 

Rhythmically, the symphony conforms to the traditional 
patterns, with the only exceptions being in the third and 
fourth movements. In the third movement, the composer uses 
a variety of meter signatures to change the metric pulsation 
throughout the movement. Careful attention is also given to 
the tempo marking to increase the pulse gradually to a cer- 
tain point and, then, return to a slower pulse. The fourth 
movement shows many examples of syncopation. The most 
noticeable example is achieved through the use of the 3/8 
and 2/4 meter signatures to create a syncopated pulsation. 

The composer's orchestral effects include pizzicato 
playing, muted playing, flutter tonguing, and the production 
of harmonics. in scoring the third movement, Copland uses 
mostly strings and woodwinds while the brass plays a minor 
role in the overall movement. The use of an enlarged 
percussion section also adds to the overall orchestral 
texture of the symphony. 

The Third Symphony is the most popular, and the most 
performed of any of the Copland symphonies. 



CHAPTER VII 
SYNTHESIS OF COMPOSITIONAL PROCEDURES 



The purpose of this chapter is to synthesize the 
findings regarding Copland's compositional procedure in the 
areas of melody, harmony, rhythm, formal design, and instru- 
mentation and orchestration. The conclusions drawn deal 
only with observations made in analyzing the four sym- 
phonies. Although the information might apply to other 
compositions by the composer, such application is not 
intended. 



Melod' 



Copland's themes range from short motives to long, 

lyrical melodies. An example of the motivic idea can be 

observed in the first theme of the first movement in the 
Short Symphony. 



k 



m I \ 



u 



? 



u 



Figure 7.1. Page 1, measure 1 (Short Symphony, 
First Movement) 



17 9 



180 

The first theme of the second movement of the Short Symphony 
also contains a motive from which other thematic ideas are 
derived. The theme contains four notes written in a de- 
scending manner. 




Figure 7.2. Page 27, measures 175-176 
(Short Symphony, Second 
Movement) 



The first theme of the third movement in the Short Symphony 
is also built around a motivic idea. In fact, the melodic 
framework, for part of the movement, is based upon this 
motive. 



^S 



* 




Figure 7.3. Page 37, measures 270-273 (Short Symphony, 
Third Movement) 

Another descending theme can be found in the second movement 
of the Dance Symphony. The theme consists of a whole-tone 
scale built on D, and played in a descending manner. 



181 



b4 



^2_ 



ss 



IZZ 



"ZZ. 



- p , o- 



* 



^ 



Figure 7.4. Page 37, measures 264-272 (Dance Symphony, 
Second Movement) 

The author of this study is of the opinion that the use of 
the whole-tone represents Copland's desire to move away from 
a feeling of centralization or key center. The first theme 
of the second movement in the Dance Symphony is also com- 
posed in a descending manner. Rather than use the whole 
step, as he did with the second theme, the half step becomes 
the predominant interval of the first theme. 



i 



i f r r i r f I if g ri^ 



5 



Figure 7.5. Page 33, measures 209-212 (Danoe Symphony, 
Second Movement) 

Thus, during the second movement of the Danoe Symphony, 
Copland has complemented the half-step first theme with the 
whole-step second theme. A majority of Copland's themes are 
diatonic with a minimum use of chromaticism. The following 
listing shows the number of themes in which diatonic prac- 
tice occurs. 



182 



Dance Symphony, First Movement— First Theme 
Dance Symphony, First Movement — Second Theme 
Dance Symphony, Third Movement — First Theme 
Dance Symphony, Third Movement—Second Theme 
Dance Symphony, Third Movement — Third Theme 

First Symphony, Second Movement — First Theme 

First Symphony, Second Movement — Second Theme 

First Symphony, Second Movement — Trio Theme 

First Symphony, Third Movement— Second Theme 

Short Symphony, First Movement — Second Theme 
Short Symphony, Second Movement — Second Theme 

Third Symphony, First Movement — First Theme 

Third Symphony, First Movement — Second Theme 

Third Symphony, Second Movement — First Theme 

Third Symphony, Second Movement — Trio Theme 

Third Symphony, Third Movement— First Theme 

Third Symphony, Fourth Movement — First Theme 

Third Symphony, Fourth Movement — Second Theme 

The only theme in which a moderate amount of chromaticism 
does occur is in the First Symphony, the first theme of the 
third movement. In some cases, an ambiguity is created in 
the melodic writing by the alternation between a major and a 
minor tonal center. The type of ambiguity just described 
can be seen in the themes of the Short Symphony, first theme 
of the first movement (D major/D minor center) , and the 
Dance Symphony, first theme of the first movement (E major/E 
minor center) . During the First Symphony, trio theme of the 
second movement, the composer uses the blues scale which 
consists of the flat third, flat fifth, and flat seventh 
degrees of the diatonic major scale. It is also interesting 
to note that the interval range of the themes are, more 
often than not, within the span of an octave. The chart on 



183 



the following page shows the interval range of all the 
themes (see Figure 7.6, page 184). When repeating a theme, 
the composer usually changes the theme, either rhythmically, 
intervallically, or melodically, to keep the material from 
becoming tiresome. Copland uses many devices, in developing 
his thematic material. Among these are: augmentation, 
diminution, intervallic contraction, intervallic expansion, 
fugato, stretto, and imitation. Of the seven devices listed 
above, the most frequently found are stretto, fugato, imita- 
tion, augmentation, and diminution. Intervallic contraction 
and intervallic expansion occur less frequently. 

It should be mentioned that the four most commonly used 
devices, with regard to thematic development are associated 
with the fugue. The fugue is an instrumental form which 
originated during the Baroque period. The occurrence of 
diatonic themes, and thematic developmental devices common to 
the Baroque period would classify Copland's melodic writing 
as neoclassical in manner. 

Harmony 

Copland takes advantage of a wide variety of harmonies, 
ranging from triads to poly tonality . Triadic harmonies 
sometimes occur in the harmonization of the themes, as in 
the case of the second theme in the fourth movement of the 
Third Symphony. In the Short Symphony, there are rare 



184 



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185 

instances where the composer utilizes triads, and major- 
minor seventh chords. Sometimes, the triads are spelled 
with one of the tones omitted, usually the third. Without 
the third, there is no indication of chord quality. Thus, 
the result is threefold: one, an ambiguity is created with 
regard to chord quality; two, the interval of a fifth 
creates an "open" or "empty" sound quality associated with 
Copland's music; and three, the creation of a stable root 
feeling. The composer also uses polychords. In some 
instances, these chords have one or more tones in common. 
The figure below shows two triads that form a polychord. 



G B 



D\ F*(A) 



Figure 7.6. 

When this chord is used, it is usually spelled F-sharp, D, 
G, and B. The result is the polyharmony of I over V in the 
key center of G. Polyharmonies are used throughout the 
symphonies. In the last movement of the First Symphony, 
several second inversion triads can be found above a C pedal 
point. The result is different triads sounding above a 
suggested C tonal center. Many polychords, particularly in 
the Third Symphony, are erected on triads whose roots are an 



186 

interval of a second apart. Chords containing several tones 
with no definite pitch center are also adopted by Copland. 
These chords, called clusters, are utilized in rare in- 
stances to create tension. 

Perhaps the most interesting finding regarding harmony 
is Copland's use of polytonality . Some of the polytonal 
sections are built around closely related keys. In the 
first movement of the Dance Symphony, for example, the key 
center of D and the key center of F are simultaneously 
implied. An extended use of polytonality can be found in 
the First Symphony. During the last movement, Copland has 
employed three tonal centers simultaneously. When asked 
whether or not there was some planned or theoretical basis 
for the polytonality, he replied: 

There was no planned basis for the poly- 
tonal _ implications . It must be a spontaneous 
reaction to the music you are hearing around 
you. In the twenties, the new music was 
really quite new. It seemed fresh and differ- 
ent, rhythmically more exciting, more daring, 
and more challenging to the performer, as well 
as the composer. So what influences a com- 
poser depends upon what period he is living 
m, what development of music is in that time, 
and so forth. A lot of things come into play. 1 

For the most part, Copland has instituted a linear 
framework with an extensive use of counterpoint. This fact 



Statement by Aaron Copland, in a personal interview 
Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



187 



is reinforced through such melodic devices as strettos, 
imitations, and fugatos. The linear structure is also 
reinforced by the use of polytonality in which two or more 
key centers are moving in a horizontal manner. Counterpoint 
is prevalent throughout all of Copland's symphonies, especi- 
ally the Third Symphony. The Third Symphony is also the 
only symphony to use key signatures. The key signatures aid 
in establishing tonal centers throughout the symphony. 

The use of linear polyphony, incomplete chord struc- 
ture, polyharmonies, clusters, and polytonality can be 
observed in all the symphonies. Harmonically speaking, 
Copland writes in a style that is commonly associated with 
the twentieth century. 

Rhythm 

One of the aspects of Copland's music which many 
researchers and music critics have discussed is rhythm. The 
composer has several features in his rhythmic scheme that 
demand notice. The first is his use of ostinatos. Many 
ostinatos can be seen in the first three symphonies. The 
motto theme in the First Symphony not only acts as a melodic 
unifying force for the entire work, but also as an ostinato 
figure in the first and last movements of the composition. 



188 

The next feature is the use of syncopation. In the 
following figure, the composer has alternated two meter 
signatures to achieve a syncopated pulsation. 



=bt 



V- 



m 



^m 



m 



m^ 



Figure 7.7. Pages 118-119, measures 929-932 (Third 
Symphony, Fourth Movement) 

The use of syncopation, whether through meter changes or 
not, has become synonymous with Copland's music. The 
syncopated rhythms are often referred to as jazz rhythms. 

A third feature has to do with frequent meter changes. 
An example of this aspect can be observed in the Short 
Symphony. A variety of frequently changing meters causes an 
irregular rhythmic pulsation. In the first movement of the 
Short Symphony, the meter changes a total of thirteen times 
in a span of nineteen measures. No other movement, in the 
Short Symphony or any other symphony, changes meter quite as 
frequently. 

A fourth feature is the use of augmentation and diminu- 
tion. Augmentation refers to the proportionate lengthening 
of note values, and diminution refers to the proportionate 
shortening of note values. It is not uncommon to find the 
return of a theme or motive employing these devices. 



189 



A fifth feature is the composer's utilization of 
polyrhythms. Here, Copland has managed to achieve two, and 
sometimes three, metric pulsations simultaneously. The key 
is that these pulsations are accomplished by shifting 
accents. In the last movement of the Dance Symphony, a 
majority of the polyrhythms can be found. In one particular 
instance, measures 472 through 479, the composer, while 
writing in a 3/8 meter signature, also manages to achieve a 
3/16 and a 2/8 meter pulsation by shifting accents. 

Copland's rhythmic material features the use of poly- 
rhythms and syncopations (jazz rhythms). These two feat- 
ures, especially jazz rhythms which Copland used as a 
consciously nationalist device, are common stylistic ele- 
ments of the twentieth century. 

Formal Design 

Many of the formal structures of the individual move- 
ments adhere to some classical form. The greatest amount of 
experimentation has come in the sonata-allegro form. In 
some instances, Copland has reversed the themes in their 
order of appearance in the recapitulation. In the fourth 
movement of the Third Symphony, the composer begins the 
statement of his second theme during the development sec- 
tion. There are only two symphonies which contain movements 
which are in free form, and they are the Dance Symphony and 



190 



the First Symphony. The tonal centers of the movements are 
also not consistent with the traditional design. The tradi- 
tional tonic-dominant and tonic-mediant relationships are 
found only in a few instances. The first and second move- 
ments of the Short Symphony, for example, have traditional 
tonal center relationships. The first movement has a tonic- 
mediant relationship, whereas the second movement has a 
tonic-dominant relationship. 

The forms which are used include: theme and variation 
(once), arch (two), scherzo (twice), free form (three), and 
sonata-allegro (five times). The Dance Symphony, First 
Symphony, and Second Symphony all have three movements 
rather than the traditional four movements. The Dance 
Symphony and the Short Symphony both contain transitional 
material to create a continuous flow in which there are no 
pauses between movements. All of the symphonies adhere to 
the cyclic principle of design. The Dance Symphony, in 
addition to being cyclic in form, also contains programmatic 
elements, thus making the work a program symphony. The 
listing which follows outlines the form of each movement, as 
well as the form of the symphonies themselves. 

Dance Symphony 
(Cyclic form — Programmatic) 

First Movement - Sonata-allegro 
Second Movement - Free form 
Third Movement - Free form 



191 



First Symphony 
(Cyclic form) 

First Movement - Free form 
Second Movement - Scherzo 
Third Movement - Sonata allegro 

Second Symphony 
(Cyclic form) 

First Movement - Sonata allegro 

Second Movement - Arch 
Third Movement - Sonata allegro 

Third Symphony 
(Cyclic form) 

First Movement - Arch 
Second Movement - Scherzo 
Third Movement - Theme and Variation 
Fourth Movement - Sonata allegro 

Since all of the symphonies adhere to the cyclic 
format, and several of the movements follow a traditional 
structure, Copland's symphonies, with respect to form, are 
essentially neoclassic in design. 

Instrumentation and Orchestration 

In scoring, Copland has used a large orchestra and an 
expanded percussion section in the Dance Symphony, First 
Symphony, and the Third Symphony. The Short Symphony is 
written for a small orchestra, and no percussion instruments 
are used. The piano, however, is treated in a percussive 
manner throughout the Short Symphony. Some of the movements 



192 

within the symphonies are scored for a small or chamber 
orchestra. The third movement of the Third Symphony and the 
first movement of the First Symphony are examples of the 
composer writing for the chamber orchestra effect. The 
thin, transparent texture which is associated with Copland's 
musical style is achieved through the soloistic treatment of 
the instruments, incomplete chord structure, and rare 
doubling except for emphasis. The third movement of the 
First Symphony does not share this transparent texture. The 
movement has a very dense texture which can be attributed to 
an extensive use of polyharmony, polytonality , clusters, and 
complete chord structures. 

Many orchestral effects are used throughout the sym- 
phonies. In some cases, as many as three effects are 
utilized together for color. Two effects that stand above 
all others are flutter tonguing (Third Symphony) , and 
quarter tone usage (Dance Symphony) . Most of the effects 
employed in the symphonies are for strings. The listing 
below contains all the special instrumental effects used in 
the four symphonies. 

Flutter tonguing Sul pontioello 

Cuivrt Staccato 

Fvzzvcato Muted strings 

Glvssando Muted brass 

Col legno j ett , 

Sul tasto Quarter tone 



193 

The Dance Symphony, First Symphony, and Third Symphony 
are in a twentieth-century style with regard to instrumenta- 
tion and orchestration, whereas the Short Symphony is neo- 
classical in style. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE USEFULNESS OF THE SYMPHONIES AS EXEMPLARS IN 
THE TEACHING OF HIGHER LEVEL MUSIC THEORY COURSES 

Although the training of musicians most often begins 
with music of the eighteenth century, it is important that 
this music serve as a foundation giving an historical 
perspective from which the student will increase his 
understanding. Nevertheless, it is important for the 
student also to examine new music and become acquainted with 
new compositions and compositional techniques. Exploring 
music will give the student some ideas of how a composer has 
utilized the elements of music for a compositional purpose. 
The ideas in this chapter can serve as examples in the 
teaching of higher level music theory courses. By studying 
the musical examples, the student can observe how Copland 
has used certain elements of music in his writing. An 
understanding of the compositional process can serve as a 
basis for the student's own writing, performing or 
listening. Leon Dallin reinforces this fact, as he says: 

Systematic utilization of new materials 
in creative exercises teaches composers to 
write the musical language of our time, per- 
formers to speak it, and listeners to under- 
stand it. The individuality of composers is 
asserted by the choices they make from the 
infinite possibilities when they are deliber- 
ately initiating established styles. Besides, 

19 4 



195 



individuality is not so much something to strive 
for as something which emerges spontaneously with 
maturity and technical proficiency. 



Copland's Melodic Contour 

One of the most important aspects of musical composi- 
tion is the composer's ability to write effective melodies. 
Copland's melodies, often diatonic, range from short motives 
to long, lyrical themes. When short motives are used, 
Copland is able to utilize the minimum amount of melodic 
material to an effective end. This idea can be seen in the 
examples below. 



k 



i&L 



m rTf f 'fir J - 1 i |J i 



z 



Figure 8.1A. Page 33, measures 209-212 {Dance Symphony, 
Second Movement) 




Figure 8. IB. Page 27, measures 176-176 (Short Symphony, 
Second Movement) 



"TLeon Dallin, Techniques of Twentieth-Century Composi- 
tion (Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Company, Publishers, 
1974) , p. xi. 



196 



In another instance, Copland uses a melody that is quite 
conventional. The melody is diatonic and can be divided 
into halves which begin similarly. The first half ends with 
an incomplete cadence, and the second half ends with a com- 
plete cadence. Stepwise motion is predominant in the melody 
and there is no climactic effect. The lacking of a climac- 
tic point is due to the fact that the highest note comes at 
the beginning of each phrase. 



k 



5 




£ 



m 



* l 



m 




Figure 8.2. Page 30, measures 208-214 (Short Symphony, 
Second Movement) 



In contrast to the previous melodies where the composer has 
used repeated material, the following melody has no repeti- 
tion. The melody, which contains some chromaticism, begins 
on a low pitch, proceeds upward, returns below the beginning 
pitch, moves to a climactic point and eventually returns to 
the beginning pitch. The melody also has a wide interval 
span. 



197 



m 



te 



ZT 



|aE 1 tfag j 



r J ) \ rtf J 



f i r l 



I 



e 



j . i f^i vff^rri^ I 



■ 



i 



i 



£ feg 

: z- it 



p 



se 



Figure 8.3. Page 45, measures 391-402 (First Symphony, 
Third Movement) 

The next example is similar to that of Figure 8.3 in its u 
of chromaticism. the melody contains only two rhythmic 
patterns in which no melodic material is repeated. The 
melody begins at a high point and gradually moves downward. 




H i W%r i 



k 



lz 



S; 



m i r r a 



^ri'- 1 ? ! n f r 



V* 



zz 



Figure 8.4. Pages 14-15, measures 94-101 (Dance Symphony, 
Second Movement) 



198 

In the restatement of melodic ideas, Copland sometimes makes 
a slight variation in the melody. In the example that 
follows, the composer, to keep from literal repetition of 
previous material, changes the rhythm and the melodic 
content of the first four measures of the theme. Copland 
has also instituted a melodic change in the last four 
measures, even though the rhythm is unchanged. 



\Y--i < -t 



W 



4- + 4- 



yea 



f-£- 



4- 4. -s ■. 4L 



5^5 



m 



b£ 



m 



/ / 



m 



i=m 



: ^ & 



# *f ¥ *iVH i 



w 



± 



M 



Figure 8.5. Page 5, measures 27-36 (Dance Symphony, 
First Movement) 



The scales used thus far by Copland have been diatonic. 
There are two instances in which the composer uses other 
scales for melodic material. The first of these scales is 
the whole-tone scale. The whole-tone scale consists of 
whole steps, and contains only six tones. 



199 



k 



*: 



* £• £. £ & * 



^2 



y fff i 



t;fTr f g 



IE 



<x- 



5 



Figure 8.6. Page 37, measures 266-272 (Dance Symphony, 
Second Movement) 



The second scale is the "blues" scale. The blues scale is 
associated with a particular type of black folk music. The 
blues scale consists of the diatonic scale with third, 
fifth, and seventh degrees flatted. The blues scale con- 
tains seven tones. 



b= 



pi T jum p 



k£ 



a 



za i b 



zz: 



tfe 



fl'fPrl.i 



^ 



[za kg 



lapa 



aS 



^■Q . flL 



1 



Figure 8.7. Pages 24-25, measures 215-228 (First Symphony, 
Second Movement) 



The student can observe how Copland has manipulated several 
factors in his melodic writing and use these factors as a 
foundation for greater discoveries. 



2 00 

Copland's Harmonic Practice 

The composer's harmonic materials range from simple 
triads to polytonality. In using chords, Copland on some 
occasions omits tones—usually the third. The omission of 
the third creates an ambiguity with respect to chord qual- 
ity. In the example which follows, the open fifths create 
an "open" sound which is associated with Copland's music. 



J2. 



s 



I 



s 



m 



Figure 8.8. Page 16, measure 111 (Short Symphony, 
First Movement) 



The utilization of open fifths can also be observed in the 
last chord of the Short Symphony. 



k 



31 



;; 



ZH 



ZE 



Figure 8.9. Page 67, measure 506 (Short Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



On some occasions, Copland has used clusters. It should be 
noted that these clusters usually appear either at a climac- 
tic point in a movement or to create tension. 



201 



607 






610 



b&> \ 



Figure 8.10. Page 70, measure 607 and measure 
610 (First Symphony , Third 
Movement) 



Another cluster appears as the last chord in the Danae 
Symphony. The cluster consists of three tones — G, A, and 
B-flat. 



m 



k 



&± 



#* 



Figure 8.11. Page 87, measure 655 (Dance Symphony, 
Third Movement) 

A majority of Copland's harmonic language revolves around 
polychords. In the Short Symphony, for instance, there is 
the indication of a polyharmony of I over V. The opening 
motive provides a dominant function which resolves to a G 
tonic in the second measure. The F-sharp, and the D and A, 
preserve the dominant implication resulting in the poly- 
harmony of I/V. 



202 




Figure 8.12. Page 1, measures 1-2 (Short Symphony, 
First Movement) 



The following example shows different triads sounding, 
simultaneously, over a C pedal point. The bottom triadic 
unit of the polychords is in second inversion. The second 
inversion creates the most resonant chordal unit upon which 
polyharmonies can be built. 



fee 



3 




V 



& 



k^k% 



G 



At> A & 8 C 



¥■ 



A A 



mwty $W 



E \? | F F*6 ^ 



Figure 8.13. Page 48, measures 428-429 (First Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



2 03 

Polytonality also plays an important role in Copland's 
harmonic practice. In the example that follows, Copland 
uses an F tonal center, along with a B tonal center. Both 
of the centers are used to provide a harmonic background for 
the melody. The tonal centers are a tritone apart. 



Horn 



Viola 
Cello 



fc 



£ 



i^p 



i | j 



r 



k 



r 



3=* 



i 



r 



t 



is 



=j p j 



r 



i 



r 



c 



* 



r 



r 



£• 



Figure 8.14. Page 3, measures 29-32 (First Symphony, 
First Movement) 



Not only does the composer show a skill for combining two 
tonal centers, he has also, in one instance, used three 
tonal centers. Copland uses the melody, chord harmonies, 
and ostinato to imply three different tonal centers. The 
ostinato figure suggests an F tonal center, the horns 
suggest an A tonal center, and the woodwinds suggest an 
F-sharp center. 



Woodwind 

Trumpet 

String 



Horn 



Trombone 

Bassoon 

Bass 



5 3 b y> l 



2 



k 



^ 



s 



§ 



II 



20 4 



Wf 



E 



f 



# 



M 



m - i 



W/ 



S 



ft 



1 



i 



fi i j i i ! 



1 f s f 



s 



cat 



I 



* 



^ 



* F * 



tzz 



^ 



jgB 



s 



rf 



PZ 



i 



Figure 8.15. Page 50, measures 451-455 {First Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



Copland's utilization of polychords and polytonality demon- 
strates a commitment to a twentieth-century idiom. No 
course in harmony would be complete without a thorough 
indepth study of twentieth-century harmonic practices. 
Copland's method of chord building and use of tonal centers 
serve as excellent examples of harmonic practices in 
twentieth-century music. 



20 5 
Copland's Rhythmic Practice 

In the twentieth century, rhythm became less restricted 
to regular patterns. More changes in rhythmic use took 
place in this period than any of the previous periods of 
music history. The composers' desire to move away from the 
bar line and traditional meter pulsation is reflected in the 
use of rapidly changing meter signatures, shifting accents, 
and asymmetrical meter signatures. 

Traditionally, the bar line and meter signatures were 
used to establish a constant metric pulsation. In some 
instances, Copland avoids this limitation by using the bar 
line as a notational convenience. The effect is one of 
nonmetric pulsation. In the example which follows, Copland 
uses a 5/4 and 3/4 meter signature and ties to create a 
nonmetric pulsation. The metric pulsation indicated by the 
meter signature and bar line cannot be detected. 



\Si : \ r frf'* \m 



He 



1 



7Z 



Figure 8.16. Page 71, measures 522-527 (Third Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



Another type of syncopation is created by shifting the 
accents of a normal meter pulsation to another beat or 
fraction of a beat. 



206 



J" 1 \ % M'li ( "i l'IJ "i 1 ' 1 



;: 



H 



m ■' I II ' I I I' i 



Figure 8.17. Pages 61-62, measures 460-464 (Short Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



Syncopation is also achieved by combining two meter signa- 
tures together. This idea can be seen in the following 
examples. 



\ gfeg 



12 



> — u 



tt? 



i 



I 



i 



i 



Figure 8.18A. Page 118, measures 929-932 {Third Symphony, 

Fourth Movement) 



> > 



ii» f fffff i „f- f j fff 



f m r r 



> 
A. 



2 



Figure 8.18B. Page 46, measures 341-345 (Dance Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



20 7 

By shifting the accents in a particular meter signature, the 
composer changes the pulsation of a given meter or creates 
two or more metric pulsations simultaneously. In the follow- 
ing example, Copland has shifted the accents in the 3/8 
meter pulsation to give a 2/8 pulsation. 



a**= - u — F — ^ = 


H^ s^u — i u±g==& i l|J i=i=i 



Figure 8.19. Page 55, measures 396-399 {Dance Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



The following example shows how the composer, by shifting 
accents, is able to create three metric pulsations. In 
addition to the 3/8 meter pulsation, Copland has also 
achieved a 3/16 and a 2/8 meter pulsation. 



20 8 



. Vm. k 



Woodwind 
Piano 



Violin 



Viola 
Cello 




k 



i^3> 



\ y f jj 



* 



as 




J E 1 ' — 





Figure 8.20. Page 64, measures 472-477 (Dance Symphony, 
Third Movement) 



Frequent changes of meter provide other means of creating an 
irregular metric pulsation. In the first movement of the 
Short Symphony (measures 150 through 169) , the meter changes 
thirteen times in a span of nineteen measures. 



20 9 

Using asymmetric meters is also a means of achieving 
rhythmic variety. In the next example, the 5/8 meter is 
divided into 2+3. 



i^ 



Uk 



^ 



* y/ t -w 



c. 



£ 



¥^ 



c 5 —III r i £3==!= - __J_ =— - 



a 



Figure 8.21. Pages 13-14, measures 79-85 (Short Symphony, 
First Movement) 



The examples above should serve to encourage rhythmic 
freedom among students. 



Structural Design 

Many of the forms used by Copland are based on some 
classical format. Although these forms at times do not 
adhere strictly to a classical design, the composer has 
experimented or extended the forms in different ways. In 
the Dance Symphony, for example, the first movement re- 
sembles the sonata-allegro format. However, the tonal 
centers between the first and second themes are not con- 
sistent with a traditional design. The same is true for the 



210 

third movement of the Dance Symphony. Another extension can 
be found in the fourth movement of the Third Symphony. 
Here, Copland's second theme enters in the development 
section instead of the traditional entrance. In some 
instances, Copland reverses the order of the themes as they 
return in the recapitulation. Hence, the second theme 
returns first and the first theme returns second. This idea 
can be observed in the third movement of the First Symphony. 
The composer also used free form. Free form is the 
absence of a traditional or strict design. Copland uses 
free form in the second and third movements of the Dance 
Symphony. The second movement is built around two themes 
linked together through transitional material. The third 
movement is built around three themes and is linked together 
by a buttress. There is only one transition and three 
statements of the buttress. No development section is used. 

All of the symphonies are in cyclic form. The reappear- 
ance of earlier thematic material in later movements can be 
seen throughout the symphonies. The use of the motto theme 
in the First Symphony serves as a good example of the cyclic 
form. The motto theme serves as the unifying force for the 
entire symphony. Another example of the cyclic return can 
be seen in the third movement of the Short Symphony. In the 
coda of the third movement, Copland uses thematic material 
from the first movement of the symphony. 



211 



Orchestration Technique 

The thin texture associated with Copland's music is 
partly due to orchestration. The technique employed by 
Copland is the soloistic treatment of instruments. There is 
also very little doubling except for emphasis or color. The 
transparent texture is most prevalent in the Short Symphony. 

There are also instances where the composer uses only a 
portion of the orchestra for an entire movement. This 
effect can be seen in the first movement of the First 
Symphony. The effect changes the texture from that of a 
full orchestra to that of a chamber orchestra. 

The composer uses many orchestral effects. In one 
particular instance, the composer uses three effects simul- 
taneously. This phenomenon can be seen in the first move- 
ment of the Second Symphony . 

An expanded percussion section is employed in the Danoe 
Symphony, First Symphony, and Third Symphony. The percus- 
sion section provides many colors from which the composer 
can choose for experimentation. 

In a course on orchestration, the thin texture associ- 
ated with Copland music would serve as excellent material 
for study. 



212 



Value of These Symphonies to a Young Composer 

Copland's symphonies can serve as resource material for 
the young composer. The symphonies can supply the student 
with information regarding Copland's compositional process, 
as well as his manipulation of the elements of music. The 
symphonies may also provide musical possibilities to stimu- 
late the student's musical thought. A study of Copland's 
symphonies and works by other composers can only lead to the 
broadening of the student's skills. Most importantly, the 
symphonies will furnish the students with new ideas and 
dimensions which can be explored in their writings. When 
asked if he felt the study of his symphonies could be help- 
ful to a theory or composition student, Copland remarked: 

I certainly do. Any composer's works 
which the composer himself feels is logi- 
cally constructed, well varied, and 
rhythmically interesting, he [the composer] 
would normally think that the younger com- 
poser ought to be able to profit by a 
close study of what I have done. He [the 
composer] might be mistaken; but it is the 
normal reaction that a composer would have. 



2 

Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in a personal 
interview, Peekskill, New York, July 15, 1981. 



CHAPTER IX 
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



The major purpose of this study was to provide a 
theoretical analysis of the Copland symphonies. The study 
investigated tonality, thematic material, formal design, 
rhythm, and orchestration. A comparison of these elements 
was made to show the similarities and differences among the 
symphonies, and the stylistic traits which are common to 
all. 

Aaron Copland is one of the most important composers in 
American music. His music is distinctively American with 
regard to rhythm. The composer's use of jazz, coupled with 
his transparent texture, has a distinctive sound that is 
recognized as his own. 

A majority of Copland's melodies are diatonic, and do 
not span more than an octave. Chromaticism is found in a 
few instances. His melodies range from short motives to 
long, lyrical themes. The composer's most often used 
melodic devices are stretto and imitation. 

Polyharmonies , polytonality , and clusters are found in 
the symphonies. In rare instances, Copland uses triads, and 
seventh chords. In constructing his chords, Copland on some 
occasions omits tones. The third of the chord is the tone 



213 



214 

most often omitted. He also uses intervals of a fourth, 
fifth, and octave to create an open or transparent sound. 
There is also an abundant use of counterpoint throughout the 
symphonies. This is evident through the consistent use of 
several melodic lines interacting independently. Such 
melodic devices as stretto, imitation, and fugato, reinforce 
the counterpoint idea. 

Rhythmically, the composer employs such devices as syn- 
copation, frequent changes of meter, asymmetrical rhythms, 
ostinatos, and polyrhythm. The polyrhythms and syncopation 
are often achieved through shifting accents. 

Copland's forms are usually based on some traditional 
design, usually the sonata-allegro format. On three occa- 
sions, the composer does use free form. All of the sym- 
phonies adhere to the cyclic principle of structural design. 
Although Copland does use classical forms, the tonal centers 
do not follow any traditional format. 

With regard to orchestration and instrumentation, 
Copland's thin texture can be attributed to the soloistic 
treatment of instruments, incomplete chord structure, rare 
doubling, and the constant use of intervals of a fourth, 
fifth, and octave. Three of the symphonies use an enlarged 
percussion section. One uses no percussion. 



215 

The findings indicate that Copland's music is neo- 
classic with regard to melody and formal design. The rhythm 
and harmony are twentieth-century in style. 

The symphonies can serve as resource material in the 
teaching of music theory and composition. Copland's style 
and technique are examples of twentieth-century musical 
practice and are, therefore, relevant in teaching 
twentieth-century music. The author recommends that the 
symphonies be used in music curricula of higher education 
dealing with harmony, form and analysis, composition, 
counterpoint, and orchestration as significant examples of 
twentieth-century stylistic practice. 



REFERENCES 



Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music. 2nd ed. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard 
University Press, 1972. 

Berger, Arthur. Aaron Copland. Westport, Connecticut: 
Greenwood Press Publishers, 1971. 

. "The Music of Aaron Copland," Musical 

Quarterly, XXXI (October, 1945), pp. 420-447. 



"The Third Symphony of Aaron Copland." 



Tempo, IX (Autumn, 1948), pp. 20-27. 

Burns, Mary. "An Analysis of Selected Folk-Style Themes in 
the Music of Bedrich Smetana and Aaron Copland." 
American Music Teacher, XXV (November /December , 1975), 
pp. 8-10. 

Calloway, John. Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in an 
interview on October 22, 1981, a production of WTTW/ 
Chicago, presented by the Public Broadcasting Service. 

Copland, Aaron. Copland on Music. New York: Da Capa 
Press, 1976. 

Dance Symphony. New York: Boosey and 



Hawkes Publishers, 1931. 



Hawkes Publishers, 1931. 



First Symphony. New York: Boosey and 



"Jazz Structure and Influences." Modern 



Musvc, IV (February, 1927), pp. 9-14. 

Music and Imagination. Cambridge, 



Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 19 52. 
. The New Music: 1900-196 0. New York: 



W. W. Norton and Company, 19 65. 

, "On the Notation of Rhythms." Modern 
Musxc, XXI (May/June, 1944), pp. 217-220. 

216 



217 



. Program notes to the first performance of 

the Third Symphony, which took place on October 18, 

19 46, by the Boston Symphony Orchestra, under the 
direction of Serge Koussevitzky . 

. Short Symphony. New York: Boosey and 

Hawkes Publishers, 1955. 

Third Symphony. New York: Boosey and 



Hawkes Publishers, 19 47. 



What to Listen for in Music. New York 



McGraw-Hill Company, 19 57. 

Crankshaw, Geoffrey. "Aaron Copland." Chesterian, XXXII 
(Spring, 1958), pp. 97-101. 

Dallin, Leon. Techniques of Twentieth-Century Composition. 
Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown Company Publishers, 
1974. 

Evans, Peter. "The Thematic Technique of Copland's Recent 
Works." Tempo, LI (Spring/Summer, 1959), pp. 2-13. 

Fuller, Donald. "A Symphonist Goes to Folk Sources." 

Musical America, LXVIII (February, 1948), pp. 29+. 

Gold, Don. "Aaron Copland: The Weil-Known American Com- 
poser Finds Virtues and Flaws in Jazz." Down Beat, XXV 
(May 1, 1958) , pp. 16+. 

Goldberg, Isaac. "Aaron Copland and His Jazz." American 
Mercury, XXII (September, 1927), pp. 63-65. 

Johnson, Harriett. "Aaron Copland: Dean of American 

Composers." International Musician, LXXV (July, 1976), 
pp. 6+. 

Persichetti, Vincent. Twentieth-Century Harmony. New York: 
W. W. Norton and Company, 1961. 

Ramey, Phillip. Statement by Aaron Copland, composer, in an 
interview at the Connaught Hotel in London on October 
3, 1979. Aaron Copland, Copland Conducts Copland, 
conducted by Aaron Copland, London Symphony Orchestra, 
Columbia Records, MS 7223 (jacket notes). 

Redlich, H. F. "Music from the American Continent." Music 
Review, XIX (August, 1958), pp. 247-248. 



218 



Salas, Juan 0. "Aaron Copland: A New York Composer." 
Tempo, IX (Autumn, 1948), pp. 8-16. 

Smith, Julia. Aaron Copland: His Work and Contribution to 
American Music. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 
Inc., 1955. 

Thomson, Virgil. "American Composers: Aaron Copland." 

Modern Music, IX ( January /February , 1932), pp. 67-73. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 

Quincy Charles Hilliard was born in Starkville, 
Mississippi, on September 22, 1954. He graduated from 
Starkville High School in 1972, and attended Mississippi 
State University. Mr. Hilliard graduated from Mississippi 
State University in 1975 with a Bachelor of Science degree 
in music education. He receive his master's degree from 
Arkansas State University in music education in 1977. While 
at Arkansas State, Mr. Hilliard studied composition with 
Jared Spears for two years and held a graduate teaching 
assistantship in music theory. 

Upon completion of his master's degree, he taught in the 
Memphis City School system in Memphis, Tennessee, for two 
years. His job included director of bands at White Station 
Junior and Senior High School from 19 77 to 1979. Mr. 
Hilliard began his doctoral studies at the University of 
Florida in the summer of 1979. While working on his degree, 
he directed the University of Florida Jazz Band III (1979- 
80) and the University of Florida Jazz Band II (1980-81). 
During the 1981 and 1982 school year, Mr. Hilliard was the 
assistant band director at North Marion High School in 
Sparr, 



219 



220 

Florida. From 1982 to 19 84, he held a graduate teaching 
assistantship in music theory at the University of Florida 
while completing his dissertation. While at the University 
of Florida, his composition teacher was Richard Bowles. Mr. 
Hilliard has served as adjudicator, clinician, and guest 
conductor at several colleges and high schools throughout 
the state of Florida. He also has several publications to 
his credit. Among the publications are articles which have 
appeared in the Ameriean Music Teacher, School Musician, and 
the Tennessee Musician. Mr. Hilliard also has published two 
band works — Fuvioso and Crestwood Overture. His profes- 
sional goal is to teach music theory and composition on the 
college level and to continue writing original compositions 
and articles for scholarly dissemination. 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as 
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 

William Hedges, Chairfnan 
Professor of Instructional 
Leadership and Support 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as 
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



Edward Troupin, Co-cnairman 
Professor of Music 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as 
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



Richard Bowles 
Professor of Music 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as 
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 




M, 



^ R ci,>v~^tjLi 



Albert B . v Smith, III 
Professor of Instructional 
Leadership and Support 



I certify that I have read this study and that in my 
opinion it conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly 
presentation and is fully adequate, in scope and quality, as 
a dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. 



3%d£ q VM£^ 



Budd Udell 
Professor of Music 



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty 
of the Division of Curriculum and Instruction in the College 
of Education and to the Graduate School, and was accepted as 
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. 



April, 1984 



Dean for Graduate Studies and 
Research 






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 08553 9681